5.6.2. Availability of Sufficient Institutional and Technical Capacity to
Develop and Implement Project Guidelines and Safeguards
In industrialized countries, relatively good expertise exists to understand
the technical issues involved in the preparation and implementation of LULUCF
projects. In many developing countries, however, there is not enough technical
capacity to design, implement, monitor, and evaluate LULUCF projects; this deficit
raises the issue of capacity-building needs.
As suggested by decisions at the fourth COP, capacity building for country-driven
projects must be greatly enlarged. If forestry and biofuel options are to play
key roles in least-cost and early (precautionary) GHG reductions, there is a
need for experts to initiate and implement projects (Haque et al., 1999).
Furthermore, the twin objectives of carbon mitigation and sustainable development
present additional technical challenges to monitoring and verification (Andrasko,
1997), which are vital to the commercial credibility of LULUCF projects (Fearnside,
1997; MacDicken 1997a).
The capacity to implement LULUCF projects can be developed through investment
in training in information programs, demonstration projects, training and outreach,
and general capacity building (Swisher, 1997). For instance, Australia and New
Zealand have developed capacity-building programs to facilitate strong awareness
of modalities that govern projects in developing countries (Read, 1999; UNFCCC,
1999a; Warrick et al., 1999). In Africa, capacity building is regarded
as an equity issue (Sokona et al., 1999). Costa Rica integrated several
NGOs into its AIJ program from the beginning; these NGOs provided technical
and operational support to Costa Rica's Office for Joint Implementation (OCIC)
At different stages of a project, appropriate meetings, information workshops,
formal hearings, government-supervised notices, consultation, access to documents
and reports, employment of members of the public, use of public third-party
auditors, and complaint and dispute resolution forms of participation may be
most appropriate (Environmental Law Institute, 1996). Training in gathering
a conjunction of stakeholders to obtain mutual benefits is a crucial aspect
of general capacity building (Haque et al., 1999).