The Regional Impacts of Climate Change

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Chapter 8: North America

Executive Summary

8.1. Regional Characterization

8.2. Regional Climate Information

8.2.1. Current Climate
8.2.2. Climate Trends
8.2.3. Climate Scenarios

8.3. Impacts and Adaptation

8.3.1. Ecosystems: Nonforest Terrestrial Distribution and Sensitivities Impacts, Vulnerabilities, and Adaptation

8.3.2. Ecosystems: Forested Distribution and Sensitivities Key Impacts on Forested Ecosystems of North America

8.3.3. Hydrology and Water Resources Hydrological Trends and Variability Impacts, Adaptations, and Vulnerabilities

8.3.4. Food and Fiber: Agriculture Description of the Resource Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture Climate Variability and Extreme Events Direct and Indirect Effects Yield and Production Changes by North American Subregion Adaptation Vulnerabilities

8.3.5. Food and Fiber: Production Forestry
8.3.6. Food and Fiber: Fisheries and Aquatic Systems Freshwater Ecosystem Impacts, Adaptations, and Vulnerabilities Oceans Impacts, Adaptations, and Vulnerabilities of Ocean Fisheries Resources

8.3.7. Coastal Systems Physical Effects and Their Implications Adapting to Sea-Level Rise Erecting walls to hold back the sea Elevating land surfaces and beaches Protecting natural shorelines by allowing shores to retreat National assessments of adaptive responses

8.3.8. Human Settlements and Industry Impacts on Transportation Recreation and Tourism Extreme Weather Events Energy Supply Systems Energy Demand

8.3.9. Human Health Thermal Extremes Air Quality and Ground-Level Ozone Extreme Weather Events Biological Agents: Vector- and Waterborne Diseases Vector-borne diseases Waterborne diseases

8.4. Integrative Issues

8.4.1. Limitations of Climate Scenarios for Regional Analyses
8.4.2. Regional Texture of Impacts
8.4.3. The Role of Adaptation
8.4.4. Water as a Common Resource Across Sectors and Subregions
8.4.5. Systemic Nature of the Problem
8.4.6. Integrated Nature of the Problem



Lead Authors: R. Ball (USA), D. D'Amours (Canada), K. Duncan (Canada), D. Kaiser (USA), A. Maarouf (Canada), L. Mortsch (Canada), P. Mulholland (USA), R. Neilson (USA), J.A. Patz (USA), J.D. Scheraga (USA), J.G. Titus (USA), H. Vaughan (Canada), M. Weltz (USA)

Contributors: R. Adams (USA), R. Alig (USA), J. Andrey (Canada), M. Apps (Canada), M. Brklacich (Canada), D. Brooks (USA), A.W. Diamond (Canada), A. Grambsch (USA), D. Goodrich (USA), L. Joyce (USA), M.R. Kidwell (Canada), G. Koshida (Canada), J. Legg (Canada), J. Malcolm (Canada), D.L. Martell (Canada), R.J. Norby (USA), H.W. Polley (USA), W.M. Post (USA), M.J. Sale (USA), M. Scott (USA), B. Sohngen (USA), B. Stocks (Canada), W. Van Winkle (USA), S. Wullschleger (USA)

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