Aviation and the Global Atmosphere Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Footnotes for Energy Supply

1. Cases cover decentralised and centralised applications. Decentralised applications include:, Inner Mongolia Wind (Case 3), PV in Kenya (Case 5), Butane gas in Senegal (Case 7). Centralised applications include micro-hydro in Peru (Case 24) and Clean coal power plant in China (Case 6). Other cases include natural gas production in Indonesia (Case 13), alternative energy development in India (Case 22).

2. 1 EJ = 1018 Joules.

3. For more information on Buenos Aires decisions, the Kyoto Protocol, including JI and CDM see Section 3.4 and 3.6 in Chapter 3.

4. This effort estimated 100GW equivalent potential from the biomass resources available as agriculture residues.

5. E.g. small hydro plants, natural gas flaring, municipal solid waste (MSW) burning and/or biodigestion, biofuels (from sugarcane, starches, and vegetable oils), solar thermal heating, biomass residues combustion (including co-firing), biodigestors, coal and biomass gasification, combined heat and power production, and wind mills.

6. This figure was calculated based on the currency exchange rate in November 1999.

7. Efforts in this direction help diffusion of publicly owned technologies. A significant number of them are quite sensitive to transportation costs (e.g., small hydro, biomass) or are more demanded in rural areas than in large cities (e.g., small hydro, wind).

8. IRP treats energy supply and demand on equal terms, and searches for the most economical solution to provide the final user the energy services he needs (cooking, lighting, transportation, etc.).

9. See also Chapter 5 on MDB finance and other sources of private and public sector finance and Chapter 2 on international financial resource flows.

10. Tokyo Electric Power Company's educational programme is a good example of this strategy (TEPCO,1999).

11. The electricity sector of developing countries requires investments of the order of US$ 100-200 billion per year (Reddy et al., 1997; IIASA/WEC, 1998)

12. Aggregate net long-term resource flows to low and middle income countries has increased substantially from US$ 100 billion in 1990 to 284 billion in 1996 (World Bank, 1997).

13. See Box 5.2 in Chapter 5, for information about GEF.

14. This system is not working in the FSU due to market distortion.

15. It has been estimated that 75% of international technology transfer arises from trade flows (OECD, 1995a). International trade in capital equipment is the most direct of these channels, since a large proportion of trade is in "producer" goods (i.e. goods which are used in the production of other goods and which are therefore important determinants of the production technologies) (Coe and Helpman, 1995).