Methodological and Technological Issues in Technology Transfer

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6.2 Criteria for Determining Effective Technology Transfer

Evaluation of technology transfer requires criteria that are specific to the manufacture and use of technologies, and to the process of transferring these technologies. The IPCC Technical Paper I included a discussion of the criteria that could be used to evaluate technologies and measures (IPCC, 1996). These criteria are also useful to determine the effectiveness of technologies that are transferred. The criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of a technology are grouped into three categories as shown below, and in more detail in Annex 1-2, Chapter 1:

  1. GHG and other environmental criteria
  2. Economic and social criteria
  3. Administrative, institutional and political criteria

Some of these criteria, such as the GHG reduction potential, are amenable to quantitative evaluation, while others such as political considerations are at best evaluated qualitatively. An example of the application of these criteria would be the market penetration of wind power technology within a country and/or between countries. It would be possible for instance to quantitatively evaluate the transfer of this technology with respect to criteria 1 and 2, and qualitatively with respect to the third criterion. In addition, the case example would identify and describe the policies, programmes and measures that were used to overcome barriers to the transfer of the technology, and how these affected one or more of the aforementioned criteria. For example, the programme may have resulted in a more equitable distribution of jobs, increased government subsidy, or to easier replication of wind turbine projects.

In addition to the above criteria one needs to consider criteria to evaluate the effectiveness of the process of technology transfer. These process-related criteria (see also Annex 1-2, Chapter 1) include:

  1. Rate and geographic extent of technology transfer
  2. Long-term institutional capacity building
  3. Monitoring and evaluation considerations
  4. Leakage that reduces the impact of a programme or measure

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