Annex 1-3: A Stakeholder Typology
- Sources and developers of technology
Individuals/organisations who undertake original research to develop technology.
Typical developers include scientific research organisations, R&D departments
within private firms, and government-sponsored research entities. Technology
can be developed in either the public or private sector.
- Owners and suppliers of technology
These usually include private firms, state-owned enterprises, and government
agencies. Technology developed in the public sector often is "spun off"
to the private sector, since the private sector is seen as better able to exploit
the market potential of the technology. In some countries, however, public sector
organisations now compete with suppliers of technology that are based in the
The primary stakeholders in the technology transfer process. Buyers of technology
usually are private firms, but can also include state-owned enterprises, government
agencies, and individual entrepreneurs.
- Financiers of technology transfer
Those who lend to technology buyers, or invest in them to enable the buyers
to acquire the technology from the suppliers. Organisations involved include
commercial banks, international financial institutions (e.g., the International
Finance Corporation), and individual or institutional investors.
Include organisations such as UN agencies that have no commercial interest
at stake and whose objective is to facilitate matchmaking between the buyer's
needs and the suppliers by providing objective, unbiased information. This information
could include technology options, sources of technology, case studies where
technologies have been used, data and data processing information, and methods
for evaluating different options.
Include consultants, NGOs, media, consumer groups, and trade associations.
Market intermediaries usually can have significant influence on the buyer's
decision by providing information about technologies. Depending on the interest
of the intermediary, this information may promote certain technologies at the
expense of others.
The government of the buyer's country sets the rules for transactions through
regulation, incentives, and frameworks governing imports of technology/foreign
capital. Where the government perceives that the private costs of technology
may not reflect the true costs to society (e.g., a technology may have environmental
externalities), the government may be involved in expanding or limiting the
range of technologies under consideration. The government of countries whose
companies sell technologies may set policies to promote technology transfer
in support of the climate stabilisation, via ODA and other measures.