8.6 Lessons Learned
The past experiences on the transfer of transport technologies provide some
useful lessons, which could help future technology transactions between technology
suppliers and technology recipients.
The need for government's commitment in the transfer and development of technology
as shown in the different cases studied in this chapter is vital for the transfer
process. This is true for both technology suppliers and technology recipients.
Technology suppliers need to demonstrate their commitment by providing conditions
that stimulate technology outflows, while technology recipients have to demonstrate
their will by providing the enabling environment for the private sector's participation.
Building indigenous technological capacities increases the technology receptivity
of a country. This activity is extremely important for technology recipients,
as is the improvement of their overall business environment. These attributes
will attract foreign and local investments along with technology inflows. Establishing
a partnership between government and the private sector can contribute to useful
technological relationships involving transfer. High quality manpower with a
supporting industrial infrastructure is the main factor that drives technology
growth in a country. This provides the capacity for "un-packaging"
technology imports, effective R&D policy, and the drive to select vital
technology imports for further development. The important role of government
in the process is summarised below:
- Formulating the national transport development strategies, including encouraging
or restricting certain transport options.
- Providing market development support for increased investments in the transfer
of existing environmentally sound transport technologies and fuels, and support
for their further development.
- Supporting R&D and demonstration projects related to the advantages
of environmentally sound transport options.
- Setting and enforcing standards for improved efficiency and GHG emission
- Giving preferential support through fiscal and other measures for environmentally
sounds transport modes.
- Promoting the expanded use of information networks to foster technology
- Using regional market opportunities to stimulate closer inter-government
interests and government-industry relationships and interactions
- Promoting local and external investments including co-financing programmes
- Providing policy and regulatory frameworks for fiscal incentives for alternative
fuel use and distribution infrastructure, and mechanisms for internalising
social costs of transport.
- Promoting international cooperation in making available necessary financial
resources through regional and international financial institutions for programmes
such as collaborative R&D and demonstration, and information exchange.
A significant number of transport options exist now and will be developed in
the future that will reduce GHG emissions significantly, but they need to be
transferred to where they are needed once certain implementing barriers can
be overcome. Similarly, policy and measures are available that can transfer
some of these options using the different stakeholders. Creating an enabling
environment for effective participation of the private sector is very important
for both technology outflows and inflows. In addition, improving the overall
business environment will enhance investments and technology inflows. Exploiting
the facilitating role of multilateral agencies will assist the adoption of the
transport options discussed. The will and political commitment of all governments
is crucial for the process of technology transfer and development.
The inflexibility in the transport sector due to its fossil fuel dependency
and entrenched interests will need to change by departing from present lifestyles
and travel patterns, if the current growth in transport-related GHG emissions
is to be decreased.