12.2.1 Features of Forestry Mitigation Technologies
Long gestation period. Decisions on transfer and adoption of technologies are
going to be determined by the anticipated carbon abatement and long-term biological
(such as biodiversity) and socio-economic factors. Forestry projects (such as
hard wood plantations) could take 50-100 years to provide carbon mitigation
benefits. The long gestation period leads to uncertainties regarding carbon
abatement and socio-economic impacts.
Linked to subsistence economy. In tropical countries millions of indigenous
and rural households depend on forests for their livelihood, whereas in temperate
countries dependence on forestry is largely commercial, although protective
functions of the forests are important too. Forestry projects could impact on
the livelihood and local economies in developing countries.
Subject to natural calamities. Forests and plantations are subjected to fire,
drought, pests and diseases affecting the C stocks and flows. Thus, any intervention
will have to be carefully evaluated.
Climate and location specificity of technologies. Forestry technologies vary
among tropical, temperate and boreal regions, as well as with varying forest
and plantation types, precipitation regions and socio-economic pressures.
State control of forests. In most countries, and particularly in tropical countries,
forests are largely controlled and managed by the state forest departments.
Mitigation options involving minimal technology transfer. Some of the mitigation
options require only policy initiatives, funding, regulations and control (e.g.,
ban on forest conversion or extraction).
Links to local and global environmental factors. Decisions on forestry will
affect biodiversity and other ecological benefits such as. watershed protection,
soil erosion protection, resilience to climate change and prevention of desertification.
Sustainable forest management practices could be beneficial to timber logging
countries for conserving biodiversity and watersheds. Most of the local and
global environmental benfits have not been well quantified in monetary values.
Low economic return: Forestry technologies generally have low economic return.
This impedes the investments from private (commercial) setors.
Long term sustainable approach. Requires adoption of long term sustainable
Participation of local communities. Local participation is required for implementing
mitigation projects where local communities currently reside in or depend on