12.8 Lessons Learned
In the forestry sector, technology transfer has a broad definition, which
includes sustainable forest management practices, forest conservation and Protected
Area management systems, silvicultural practices for afforestation and reforestation
programs, genetically superior planting material, efficient harvesting, processing,
end-use technologies and indigenous knowledge of forest conservation. In the
forestry sector, technology transfer could take place between Annex I and non-Annex
I countries; among Annex I and non-Annex I countries; and within countries of
Annex I and non-Annex I groups. The technology flow among the non-Annex I countries
(tropical countries) is likely to be very important due to similarities in ecological
and socio-economic conditions. The governments and private sector in Annex I
and non Annex I countries, as well as multilateral agencies, have a critical
role in establishing and operationalising financial and regulatory mechanisms,
monitoring, verification and certification arrangements, and capacity building
for technology development, diffusion and assimilation. Governments, particularly
in non-Annex I countries, could prepare guidelines and set up institutional
mechanisms to process, evaluate, sanction, and monitor forestry-sector mitigation
and adaptation projects.
Financial. The bilateral and multilateral agencies could consider how
to attract additional financial support and how they might best enhance their
contribution to forestry sector mitigation projects, where technology is an
integral component. The role of private sector funding of projects needs to
be promoted under new initiatives, including the emerging mechanisms such as
JI and the CDM, if operationalised under Kyoto protocol and forestry projects
are included. The role of GEF could be crucial assuming that it will reorient
its operational programmes to include forestry sector carbon abatement projects.
Adoption of sustainable logging practices, efficient processing and recycling
technologies could be promoted by providing financial incentives such as preferential
market access, lower taxes or duty and low-cost credit to companies adopting
Regulatory Measures. Governments in Annex I and non-Annex I countries
could benefit by adopting regulations to safeguard sustainable management and
the use of forest resources. Governments could also pass regulations to ensure
sustainable logging, efficient wood processing, recycling of forest products,
timber certification, and regulating access to industry for industrial wood
from natural forests. This could improve transfer of technologies for sustainable
logging, high yielding plantation forestry and efficient processing technologies.
Regulations to enhance the coverage of Protected Areas will ensure transfer
and adoption of Protected Area management practices. Regulations affecting deforestation
and its underlying causes are particularly important, and require a sound analysis
and understanding of the actors and their motivations in the deforestation process.
Methods for monitoring, verification and certification. One of the most
important approaches to enhance the credibility of forestry mitigation technologies
and projects is to develop and transfer methodologies for monitoring, measurement
and verification of carbon abatement in the mitigation projects as well as the
changes in forest area. It may be necessary to develop internationally credible
institutional arrangements for monitoring and verification in forestry mitigation
Capacity building for environmentally sound technology development, transfer
and assimilation. Non-Annex I countries often have inadequate institutional
capabilities to develop technologies or to assimilate the transferred technologies
as well as to develop an understanding of the effective measures to reduce deforestation.
Annex I countries could increase financial and institutional support and training
to non-Annex I countries to enable them to develop, evaluate and assimilate
climate-friendly forestry technologies and practices.
Awareness and education. To ensure compliance with regulations reducing
deforestation and logging, adoption of sustainable forest management practices,
efficient processing and recycling of forest products, it is necessary to create
awareness among local communities, NGOs and the general public. For example,
consumers could insist on certified timber coming from sustainably logged forests
or recycled forest products such as paper.
Appropriately designed forestry mitigation and adaptation projects contribute
to other environmental impacts such as biodiversity conservation, watershed
protection, and socio-economic benefits to urban and rural populations through
access to forest products and creation of jobs, ultimately promoting sustainable
development and amelioration of the process of land degradation and desertification.
Forest conservation, reforestation and sustainable forest management practices
for carbon sink conservation or enhancement will particularly benefit the forest
dwellers and rural communities by providing forest products and livelihood.