Case Study 11
Mitigating Transport Sector GHG Emissions: Options for Uganda
Stephen A.K. Magezi
AFREPREN Climate theme group
P.O. Box 7025, KAMPALA, Uganda
Keywords: NMT, mass transit, fuel efficiency
This study outlines some options to achieve fuel savings in the mass transit
sector in Uganda. It also looks at the likely impacts of introducing non-motorised
transport (NMT) to complement motorised transport (MT), especially within Kampala
City. Four cluster options were analysed: mass transit (MS), road management
and maintenance, NMT, and enhanced telecommunications. Out of the four, mass
transit and NMT were further analysed for mitigation options to reduce GHG emissions.
The study addresses land transportation including the motor vehicle, rail transport
and NMT. Historical emissions were estimated using both the top-down and bottom-up
approaches of IPCC recommended methodologies. The energy demanded by mass transit
was estimated using the Long-Range Energy Alternative Planning model (LEAP)
and focused on mini-buses, large buses and trains.
The following assumptions were made:
- The vehicle fleet is ageing and poorly maintained.
- There is low NOx control in diesel vehicles.
- Petrol motor vehicles conform to unspecified European standards.
- The energy utilisation industry is liable to change for various mitigation
The following observations influenced the analysis:
- The growth rate of mini-buses was very high, increasing GHG emissions as
well as the gap between the national diesel budget and the petrol budget.
- Mass transit in the form of buses was non-existent in urban areas, while
in up country both the coach and train were easily outcompeted by mini-buses.
- Fuel prices in Uganda were the highest within the Great Lakes region and
have led to increased fuel smuggling into the country.
- Fiscal considerations rather than energy efficiency or environmental considerations
influenced the national energy policy for transport.
- Within urban centres (Kampala) the designed-for average daily traffic (ADT)
had been exceeded, leading to severe urban traffic congestion with increased
fuel consumption and GHG emissions.
- The study on comparing energy intensity and transportation capacity found
that most of the petrol consuming vehicles had a lower capacity (passengers
per kilogram of fuel per vehicle - kilometre), and that the bus was the best
choice for mass transit in Uganda.
- Pedal bicycle counts showed that between 1988 and 1996, bicycle transport
had become a major transport option (growing by 212%) on Kampala roads, leading
to some increased traffic congestion.
- Telephone density was the lowest in the region, at 0.17/100 inhabitants.
In view of those findings, policies should aim at replacing mini-buses with
buses and should estimate different emissions scenarios.
NMT lanes should be provided for 42 selected kilometres of urban roads, with
a further option of making the Central Business District (CBD) a traffic free
It was also found that there is a considerable saving in energy demand depending
on the scenario:
|Energy Demand in Giga Joules by 2010
||Mass Transit NMT
||1.4 x 108
||1.4 x 108
||1.2 x 108
||8.0 x 107
||8.2 x 107
||7.8 x 107
|COSTS PER TON OF CO2 SAVED AT 1993 PRICES
||CO2 SAVED MILLION KG
||COST OF MEASURES MILLION US$
||COST/TON CO2 AT 1993 PRICES US$
|NMT + MT
The analysis had considerable impact on policy consultation. Key players in
the transportation sector were consulted during the survey, and an exchange
between the researchers and the policymakers recorded. Also, at a workshop on
incremental costs of implementing the UNFCCC in the transport sector, key players
were invited and gave their recommendations. At this workshop, all climate theme
Several roads within the city have been turned into one way streets to reduce
on traffic congestion.
A company to organise parking space within Kampala has been contracted, and
had the effect of reducing traffic congestion considerably (yet to be assessed).
Kampala City Council is in agreement with the creation of NMT lanes but has
yet to mobilise resources.
Mini-buses continue to dominate mass transit, but Government has plans to privatise
motor vehicle inspection to improve both fuel utilisation efficiency and general
fitness of the motor vehicle fleet.
Government has recently put in place a Road Agency Formulation Unit (RAFU) with
the objective to prepare modalities for a Uganda Roads Authority. The Authority
will be autonomous and will advise on transport policy as well as management
of roads. To date the Chief Executive of RAFU has been appointed.
There is no direct forum through which research could be fed into government
policies. Nevertheless, use of senior government and research personnel in their
respective fields has led to considerable interaction between policymakers and
scientists. In the future, it may be advisable to arrange workshops or seminars
for policymakers so research will be more influential and remove some of the
barriers against the transfer of technology.
This case study has been made possible through the kind support of the Swedish
International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA), the Norwegian Agency for
Development Cooperation (NORAD) and the African Energy Policy Research Network