Methodological and Technological Issues in Technology Transfer

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4.5 Human and Institutional Capacities2 Increasing the use of participatory techniques also involves the strengthening of human and institutional capacities. Indeed the building, developing and strengthening of institutions' and people's skills is at the heart of making most dimensions of the enabling environment work better - to achieve technology transfer.

Several terms are in use: capacity building, capacity development and capacity strengthening, depending on whether the need is for creation, reform, or support of activities and structures. The term 'capacity strengthening' has been advocated because more often than not, organisations and institutions already exist and that capacity can often be increased more effectively by reinforcing existing structures rather than by building new ones (et al., 1997. 'Capacity building' has also been criticised as implying an engineering approach to the creation of new capacity (OECD, 1995). However, as the term 'capacity-building' is now being used within the UNFCCC, it will be adopted here. Whilst there are linkages between capacity building for promoting the transfer of ESTs for mitigation and the adoption of technologies for adaptation, the emphases are different so they will be considered separately here. Principally, the difference is that whilst there has been some experience with the transfer of energy efficient technologies and renewable energy technologies, principally for development objectives (so reasons for 'failure' are known), there is comparatively little experience with the assessment and transfer of adaptation technologies. In part this is due to the absence of systematic impact and vulnerability assessment which few countries, developed or developing, have undertaken.

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