Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis

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Figure 15: Global mean surface temperature anomalies relative to the 1880 to 1920 mean from the instrumental record compared with ensembles of four simulations with a coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model forced (a) with solar and volcanic forcing only, (b) with anthropogenic forcing including well mixed greenhouse gases, changes in stratospheric and tropospheric ozone and the direct and indirect effects of sulphate aerosols, and (c) with all forcings, both natural and anthropogenic. The thick line shows the instrumental data while the thin lines show the individual model simulations in the ensemble of four members. Note that the data are annual mean values. The model data are only sampled at the locations where there are observations. The changes in sulphate aerosol are calculated interactively, and changes in tropospheric ozone were calculated offline using a chemical transport model. Changes in cloud brightness (the first indirect effect of sulphate aerosols) were calculated by an off line simulation and included in the model. The changes in stratospheric ozone were based on observations. The volcanic and solar forcing were based on published combinations of measured and proxy data. The net anthropogenic forcing at 1990 was 1.0 Wm-2 including a net cooling of 1.0 Wm-2 due to sulphate aerosols. The net natural forcing for 1990 relative to 1860 was 0.5 Wm-2, and for 1992 was a net cooling of 2.0 Wm-2 due to Mount Pinatubo. Other models forced with anthropogenic forcing give similar results to those shown in (b). [Based on Figure 12.7]

E.4 New Estimates of Responses to Natural Forcing

Assessments based on physical principles and model simulations indicate that natural forcing alone is unlikely to explain the recent observed global warming or the observed changes in vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere. Fully coupled ocean-atmosphere models have used reconstructions of solar and volcanic forcings over the last one to three centuries to estimate the contribution of natural forcing to climate variability and change. Although the reconstruction of natural forcings is uncertain, including their effects produces an increase in variance at longer (multi-decadal) time-scales. This brings the low-frequency variability closer to that deduced from palaeo-reconstructions. It is likely that the net natural forcing (i.e., solar plus volcanic) has been negative over the past two decades, and possibly even the past four decades. Statistical assessments confirm that simulated natural variability, both internal and naturally forced, is unlikely to explain the warming in the latter half of the 20th century (see Figure 15). However, there is evidence for a detectable volcanic influence on climate and evidence that suggests a detectable solar influence, especially in the early part of the 20th century. Even if the models underestimate the magnitude of the response to solar or volcanic forcing, the spatial and temporal patterns are such that these effects alone cannot explain the observed temperature changes over the 20th century.

E.5 Sensitivity to Estimates of Climate Change Signals

There is a wide range of evidence of qualitative consistencies between observed climate changes and model responses to anthropogenic forcing. Models and observations show increasing global temperature, increasing land-ocean temperature contrast, diminishing sea-ice extent, glacial retreat, and increases in precipitation at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. Some qualitative inconsistencies remain, including the fact that models predict a faster rate of warming in the mid- to upper troposphere than is observed in either satellite or radiosonde tropospheric temperature records.

All simulations with greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols that have been used in detection studies have found that a significant anthropogenic contribution is required to account for surface and tropospheric trends over at least the last 30 years. Since the SAR, more simulations with increases in greenhouse gases and some representation of aerosol effects have become available. Several studies have included an explicit representation of greenhouse gases (as opposed to an equivalent increase in CO2). Some have also included tropospheric ozone changes, an interactive sulphur cycle, an explicit radiative treatment of the scattering of sulphate aerosols, and improved estimates of the changes in stratospheric ozone.

Overall, while detection of the climate response to these other anthropogenic factors is often ambiguous, detection of the influence of greenhouse gases on the surface temperature changes over the past 50 years is robust. In some cases, ensembles of simulations have been run to reduce noise in the estimates of the time-dependent response. Some studies have evaluated seasonal variation of the response. Uncertainties in the estimated climate change signals have made it difficult to attribute the observed climate change to one specific combination of anthropogenic and natural influences, but all studies have found a significant anthropogenic contribution is required to account for surface and tropospheric trends over at least the last thirty years.

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