Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report

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Annex C. Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Units

Acronyms and Abbreviations
AA Assigned Amount
AAU Assigned Amount Unit
AD Anno Domini
AIJ Activities Implemented Jointly
A-O Atmosphere-Ocean
AO Arctic Oscillation
AOGCM Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model
Bern-CC Bern Carbon Cycle
BP Before Present
C2F6 Perfluoroethane / Hexafluoroethane
C3 Three-Carbon Compound
C4 Four-Carbon Compound
CANZ Canada, Australia, and New Zealand
CBA Cost-Benefit Analysis
CCC(ma) Canadian Centre for Climate (Modeling and Analysis) (Canada)
CCGT Combined Cycle Gas Turbine
CDM Clean Development Mechanism
CEA Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
CER Certified Emission Reduction
CF4 Perfluoromethane / Tetrafluoromethane
CFC Chlorofluorocarbon
CGCM Coupled GCM from CCC(ma)
CGE Computable General Equilibrium
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
CH4 Methane
CHP Combined Heat and Power
CMIP Coupled Model Intercomparison Project
CO2 Carbon Dioxide
COP Conference of the Parties
DAF Decision Analysis Framework
DES Development, Equity, and Sustainability
DES GP Guidance Paper on Development, Equity, and Sustainability
DHF Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever
DMF Decision Making Framework
DSS Dengue Shock Syndrome
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
EIT Economy in Transition
ENSO El Nio Southern Oscillation
ERU Emissions Reduction Unit
ES Executive Summary
ESCO Energy Service Company
EST Environmentally Sound Technology
FCCC Framework Convention on Climate Change
FSU Former Soviet Union
GCM General Circulation Model
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GFDL Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (USA)
GHG Greenhouse Gas
GNP Gross National Product
GP Guidance Paper
GPP Gross Primary Production
GWP Global Warming Potential
H2O Water Vapor
HadCM Hadley Centre Coupled Model
HFC Hydrofluorocarbon
IAM Integrated Assessment Model
ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions
IEA International Energy Agency
IET International Emissions Trading
IGCC S Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle or Supercritical
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCC TP3 Technical Paper on Stabilization of Atmospheric Greehouse Gases: Physical, Biological, and Socio-Economic Implications
IPCC TP4 Technical Paper on Implications of Proposed CO2 Emissions Limitations
ISAM Integrated Science Assessment Model
JI Joint Implementation
LCC Land-Cover Change
LSG Large-Scale Geostrophic Ocean Model
LUC Land-Use Change
MAC Marginal Abatement Cost
MOP Meeting of the Parties
MSL Mean Sea Level
MSU Microwave Sounding Unit
N2O Nitrous Oxide
NAO North Atlantic Oscillation
NBP Net Biome Production
NEP Net Ecosystem Production
NGOs Non-Governmental Organization
NOx Nitrogen Oxides
NPP Net Primary Production
NSI National Systems of Innovation
O2 Molecular Oxygen
O3 Ozone
ODS Ozone-Depleting Substance
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
OPEC Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries
OPYC Ocean Isopycnal GCM
PFC Perfluorocarbon
PMIP Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project
PPM Processes and Production Method
PPP Purchasing Power Parity
R&D Research and Development
RCM Regional Climate Model
SAR Second Assessment Report
SF6 Sulfur Hexafluoride
SME Small and Medium Sized Enterprise
SO2 Sulfur Dioxide
SPM Summary for Policymakers
SRAGA Special Report on Aviation and the Global Atmosphere
SRES Special Report on Emissions Scenarios
SRLULUCF Special Report on Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry
SRTT Special Report on the Methodological and Technological Issues in Technology Transfer
SST Sea Surface Temperature
TAR Third Assessment Report
TCR Transient Climate Response
THC Thermohaline Circulation
TP Technical Paper
TS Technical Summary
TSI Total Solar Irradiance
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
UV Ultraviolet
VA Voluntary Agreement or Value-Added
VOC Volatile Organic Compounds
WAIS West Antarctic Ice Sheet
WGI TAR Working Group I Contribution to the Third Assessment Report
WGII SAR Working Group II Contribution to the Second Assessment Report
WGII TAR Working Group II Contribution to the Third Assessment Report
WGIII TAR Working Group III Contribution to the Third Assessment Report
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WRE Wigley, Richels, and Edmonds
WTA Willingness to Accept
WTP Willingness to Pay
WUE Water-Use Efficiency


SI (Systeme Internationale) Units
Physical Quantity Name of Unit Symbol
length meter m
mass kilogram kg
time second s
thermodynamic temperature kelvin K
amount of substance mole mol
Fraction Prefix Symbol Multiple Prefix Symbol
10-1 deci d 10 deca da
10-2 centi c 102 hecto h
10-3 milli m 103 kilo k
10-6 micro 106 mega M
10-9 nano n 109 giga G
10-12 pico p 1012 tera T
10-15 femto t 1015 peta P
Special Names and Symbols for Certain SI-Derived Units
Physical Quantity Name of SI Unit Symbol for SI Unit Definition of Unit
force newton N kg m s-2
pressure pascal Pa kg m-1 s-2 (=N m-2)
energy joule J kg m2 s-2
power watt W kg m2 s-3 (=J s-1)
frequency hertz Hz s-1 (cycles per second)
Decimal Fractions and Multiples of SI Units having Special Names
Physical Quantity
Name of SI Unit
Symbol for SI Unit Definition of Unit
length Ångstrom 10-10 m = 10-8 cm
length micron m 10-6 m
area hectare ha 104 m2
force dyne dyn 10-5 N
pressure bar bar 105 N m-2 = 105 Pa
pressure millibar mb 102 N m-2 = 1 hPa
mass tonne t 103 kg
mass gram g 10-3 kg
column density Dobson units DU 2.687x1016 molecules cm-2
streamfunction Sverdrup Sv 106 m3 s-1

Non-SI Units


  degree Celsius (0°C = 273 K approximately)
Temperature differences are also given in °C (=K) rather than the more correct form of "Celsius degrees"
ppmv   parts per million (106) by volume
ppbv   parts per billion (109) by volume
pptv   parts per trillion (1012) by volume
yr   year
ky   thousands of years
bp   before present

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