Climate Change 2001:
Synthesis Report
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Figure 5-6: The response of the energy system, as indicated by the emission of CO2 (expressed as carbon), to economic changes, indicated by GDP (expressed in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) terms). The response can be almost without inertia if the shock is large. The "oil crisis" -- during which energy prices rose substantially over a short period of time -- led to an almost immediate and sustained divergence of the formerly closely linked emissions and GDP in most developed countries: Japan and United States are shown as examples. At the breakup of the Former Soviet Union, the two indicators remained closely linked, leading the emission to drop rapidly in tandem with declining GDP.

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