Climate Change 2001:
Synthesis Report
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Figure 5-7:(a)The required rate of decrease in energy intensity (energy per unit GDP) in order to meet given CO2 concentration stabilization targets is within the range of historically achieved rates for stabilization above 550 ppm, and possibly even at 450 ppm, but (b) the required rate of improvement in carbon intensity (carbon emissions per unit energy) to stabilize at levels below about 600 ppm is higher than the historically achieved rates.As a consequence, the cost of mitigation rises as the stabilization level decreases, and does so more steeply below a target of about 600 ppm than above (see Figure 7-3).

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