Climate Change 2001:
Working Group I: The Scientific Basis
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Figure 8.9: Zonal mean air and sea temperature “errors” in °C (defined here as the difference from the initial model state, which was derived from observations), for three different coupled models. The models are all versions of the ARPEGE/OPA model, with T31 atmospheric resolution, and differ only in the parametrization of lateral mixing used in the ocean component ((a) lateral diffusion, (b) isopycnal diffusion, (c) the scheme of Gent and McWilliams (1990)). The different mixing schemes produce different rates of heat transport between middle and high latitudes, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. The atmosphere must adjust in order to radiate the correct amount of heat to space at high latitudes (Chapter 7, Section 7.6 and Section 8.4.1), and this adjustment results in temperature differences at all levels of the atmosphere. From Guilyardi (1997).

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