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According to the Kyoto Protocol [Article 3 (13)], Parties included
in Annex I to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
may save excess emissions allowances or credits from the first
commitment period for use in subsequent commitment periods (post-2012).
A barrier is any obstacle to reaching a potential that can be overcome by a
policy, programme, or measure.
Barrier removal costs
The costs of activities aimed at correcting market failures directly or at reducing
the transactions costs in the public and/or private sector. Examples include
costs of improving institutional capacity, reducing risk and uncertainty,
facilitating market transactions, and enforcing regulatory policies.
A non-intervention scenario used as a base in the analysis of
An application of monetary values from a particular valuation study to an alternative
or secondary policy-decision setting, often in a geographic area other than
the one in which the original study was performed.
A fuel produced from dry organic matter or combustible oils produced by plants.
Examples of biofuel include alcohol (from fermented sugar), black liquor from
the paper manufacturing process, wood, and soybean oil.
Biological options for mitigation of climate change involves one or more of
the three strategies: conservation - conserving an existing carbon pool,
and thereby preventing emissions to the atmosphere; sequestration
- increasing the size of existing carbon pools, and thereby extracting carbon
dioxide from the atmosphere; and substitution - substituting biological
products for fossil fuels or energy-intensive products, thereby
reducing carbon dioxide emissions.
The total mass of living organisms in a given area or volume; recently dead
plant material is often included as dead biomass. Biomass can be used for fuel
directly by burning it (e.g., wood), or indirectly by fermentation to alcohol
(e.g., sugar) or extraction of combustible oils (e.g., soybeans).
A modelling approach that includes technological and engineering details in
the analysis. See also top-down models.
Article 4 of the Kyoto Protocol allows a group of countries to
meet their target listed in Annex B jointly by aggregating their
total emissions under one bubble and sharing the burden.
The European Union nations intend to aggregate and share their emissions commitments
under one bubble.
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