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The net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate
Worth, desirability, or utility based on individual preferences. The total value
of any resource is the sum of the values of the different individuals involved
in the use of the resource. The values, which are the foundation of the estimation
of costs, are measured in terms of the willingness to pay (WTP) by individuals
to receive the resource or by the willingness of individuals to accept payment
(WTA) to part with the resource.
Picture of a future world, usually a desired future world.
An agreement between a government authority and one or more private parties,
as well as a unilateral commitment that is recognized by the public authority,
to achieve environmental objectives or to improve environmental performance
Measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that are adopted by
firms or other actors in the absence of government mandates. Voluntary measures
help make climate-friendly products or processes more readily available or encourage
consumers to incorporate environmental values in their market
The carbon dioxide emissions trajectories leading to stabilization of carbon
dioxide concentrations as defined by Wigley, Richels, and Edmonds
(1996) whose initials provide the acronym. For any given stabilization level,
these profiles span a wide range of possibilities.