IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report

Projections and model consistency of relative changes in runoff by the end of the 21st century

Figure 3.5

Figure 3.5. Large-scale relative changes in annual runoff (water availability, in percent) for the period 2090-2099, relative to 1980-1999. Values represent the median of 12 climate models using the SRES A1B scenario. White areas are where less than 66% of the 12 models agree on the sign of change and hatched areas are where more than 90% of models agree on the sign of change. The quality of the simulation of the observed large-scale 20th century runoff is used as a basis for selecting the 12 models from the multi-model ensemble. The global map of annual runoff illustrates a large scale and is not intended to refer to smaller temporal and spatial scales. In areas where rainfall and runoff is very low (e.g. desert areas), small changes in runoff can lead to large percentage changes. In some regions, the sign of projected changes in runoff differs from recently observed trends. In some areas with projected increases in runoff, different seasonal effects are expected, such as increased wet season runoff and decreased dry season runoff. Studies using results from few climate models can be considerably different from the results presented here. {WGII Figure 3.4, adjusted to match the assumptions of SYR Figure SYR 3.3; WGII 3.3.1, 3.4.1, 3.5.1}