IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
Climate Change 2007: Working Group I: The Physical Science Basis

Annex IV: Acronyms & Regional Abbreviations


µmol micromole 
20C3M 20th Century Climate in Coupled Models 
AABW Antarctic Bottom Water 
AAIW Antarctic Intermediate Water 
AAO Antarctic Oscillation 
AATSR Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer 
ACC Antarctic Circumpolar Current 
ACCENT Atmospheric Composition Change: a European Network 
ACE Accumulated Cyclone Energy or Aerosol Characterization Experiment 
ACRIM Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor 
ACRIMSAT Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite 
ACW Antarctic circumpolar wave 
ADEC Aeolian Dust Experiment on Climate 
ADNET Asian Dust Network 
AeroCom Aerosol Model Intercomparison 
AERONET Aerosol RObotic NETwork 
AGAGE Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment 
AGCM Atmospheric General Circulation Model 
AGWP Absolute Global Warming Potential 
AIACC Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change in Multiple Regions and Sectors 
AIC aviation-induced cloudiness 
ALAS Autonomous LAgrangian Current Explorer 
ALE Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment 
AMIP Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project 
AMO Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation 
AMSU Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit 
AO Arctic Oscillation 
AOGCM Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model 
APEX Atmospheric Particulate Environment Change Studies 
AR4 Fourth Assessment Report 
ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement 
ASOS Automated Surface Observation Systems 
ASTEX Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment 
ATCM Atmospheric Transport and Chemical Model 
ATSR Along Track Scanning Radiometer 
AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer 
BATS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study 
BC black carbon 
BCC Beijing Climate Center 
BCCR Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research 
BIOME 6000 Global Palaeovegetation Mapping project 
BMRC Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre 
C4MIP Coupled Carbon Cycle Climate Model Intercomparison Project 
CaCO3 calcium carbonate 
CAMS Climate Anomaly Monitoring System (NOAA) 
CAPE Convective Available Potential Energy 
CCl4 carbon tetrachloride 
CCM Chemistry-Climate Model 
CCCma Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis 
CCN cloud condensation nuclei 
CCSR Centre for Climate System Research 
CDIAC Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center 
CDW Circumpolar Deep Water 
CERES Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System 
CERFACS Centre Europeen de Recherche et de Formation Avancee en Calcul Scientific 
CF4 perfluoromethane 
CFC chlorofluorocarbon 
CFCl3 CFC-11 
CH2I2 di-iodomethane (methylene iodide) 
CH2O formaldehyde 
CH3CCl3 methyl chloroform 
CH3COOH acetic acid 
CH4 methane 
CLAMS Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites 
CLARIS Europe-South America Network for Climate Change Assessment and Impact Studies 
CLIMAP Climate: Long-range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction 
CLIVAR Climate Variability and Predictability Programme 
CMAP CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation 
CMDL Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (NOAA) 
CMIP Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 
CNRM Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques 
CO carbon monoxide 
CO2 carbon dioxide 
CO32– carbonate 
COADS Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set 
COARE Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment 
COBE-SST Centennial in-situ Observation-Based Estimates of SSTs  
COWL Cold Ocean-Warm Land 
CPC Climate Prediction Center (NOAA) 
CREAS Regional Climate Change Scenarios for South America 
CRIEPI Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry 
CRUTEM2v CRU/Hadley Centre gridded land-surface air temperature version 2v 
CRUTEM3 CRU/Hadley Centre gridded land-surface air temperature version 3 
CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization 
CTM Chemical Transport Model 
DEMETER Development of a European Multimodel Ensemble System for Seasonal to Interannual Prediction 
DIC dissolved inorganic carbon 
DJF December, January, February 
DLR Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt 
DMS dimethyl sulphide 
D-O Dansgaard-Oeschger 
DOC dissolved organic carbon 
DORIS Determination d’Orbite et Radiopositionnement Intégrés par Satellite 
DSOW Denmark Strait Overflow Water 
DSP Dynamical Seasonal Prediction 
DTR diurnal temperature range 
DU Dobson unit 
EARLINET European Aerosol Research Lidar Network 
EBM Energy Balance Model 
ECMWF European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts 
ECS equilibrium climate sensitivity 
EDGAR Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research 
EMIC Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity 
ENSO El Niño-Southern Oscillation 
EOF Empirical Orthogonal Function 
EOS Earth Observing System 
EPICA European Programme for Ice Coring in Antarctica 
ERA-15 ECMWF 15-year reanalysis 
ERA-40 ECMWF 40-year reanalysis 
ERBE Earth Radiation Budget Experiment 
ERBS Earth Radiation Budget Satellite 
ERS European Remote Sensing satellite 
ESRL Earth System Research Library (NOAA) 
ESTOC European Station for Time-series in the Ocean 
EUROCS EUROpean Cloud Systems 
FACE Free Air CO2 Enrichment 
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization (UN) 
FAR First Assessment Report 
FRCGC Frontier Research Center for Global Change 
FRSGC Frontier Research System for Global Change 
GAGE Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment 
GARP Global Atmospheric Research Program 
GATE GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment 
GAW Global Atmosphere Watch 
GCM General Circulation Model 
GCOS Global Climate Observing System 
GCSS GEWEX Cloud System Study 
GEIA Global Emissions Inventory Activity 
GEOS Goddard Earth Observing System 
GEWEX Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment 
GFDL Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory 
GHCN Global Historical Climatology Network 
GHG greenhouse gas 
GIA glacial isostatic adjustment 
GIN Sea Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Sea 
GISP2 Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 
GISS Goddard Institute for Space Studies 
GLACE Global Land Atmosphere Coupling Experiment 
GLAMAP Glacial Ocean Mapping 
GLAS Geoscience Laser Altimeter System 
GLODAP Global Ocean Data Analysis Project 
GLOSS Global Sea Level Observing System 
GMD Global Monitoring Division (NOAA) 
GOME Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 
GPCC Global Precipitation Climatology Centre 
GPCP Global Precipitation Climatology Project 
GPS Global Positioning System 
GRACE Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment 
GRIP Greenland Ice Core Project 
GSA Great Salinity Anomaly 
Gt gigatonne (109 tonnes) 
GWE Global Weather Experiment 
GWP Global Warming Potential 
H2 molecular hydrogen 
HadAT Hadley Centre Atmospheric Temperature data set 
HadAT2 Hadley Centre Atmospheric Temperature data set Version 2 
HadCRUT2v Hadley Centre/CRU gridded surface temperature data set version 2v 
HadCRUT3 Hadley Centre/CRU gridded surface temperature data set version 3 
HadISST Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature data set 
HadMAT Hadley Centre Marine Air Temperature data set 
HadRT Hadley Centre Radiosonde Temperature data set 
HadRT2 Hadley Centre Radiosonde Temperature data set 
HadSLP2 Hadley Centre MSLP data set version 2 
HadSST2 Hadley Centre SST data set version 2 
HALOE Halogen Occultation Experiment  
HCFC hydrochlorofluorocarbon 
HCO3 bicarbonate 
HFC hydrofluorocarbon 
HIRS High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder 
HLM High Latitude Mode 
HNO3 nitric acid 
HO2 hydroperoxyl radical 
HONO nitrous acid 
HOT Hawaii Ocean Time-Series 
hPa hectopascal 
HYDE HistorY Database of the Environment 
IABP International Arctic Buoy Programme 
ICESat Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite 
ICOADS International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set 
ICSTM Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine 
IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme 
IGBP-DIS IGBP Data and Information System 
IGRA Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive 
IMO International Meteorological Organization 
INDOEX Indian Ocean Experiment 
InSAR Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar 
IO iodine monoxide 
IOCI Indian Ocean Climate Initiative 
IOD Indian Ocean Dipole 
IOZM Indian Ocean Zonal Mode 
IPAB International Programme for Antarctic Buoys 
IPO Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation 
IPSL Institut Pierre Simon Laplace 
IS92 IPCC Scenarios 1992 
ISCCP International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project 
ITCZ Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone 
JAMSTEC Japan Marine Science and Technology Center 
JJA June, July, August 
JMA Japan Meteorological Agency 
ka thousand years ago 
KMA Korea Meteorological Administration 
KNMI Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute 
kyr thousand years 
LASG National Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics 
LBA Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia 
LBC lateral boundary condition 
LBL line-by-line 
LGM Last Glacial Maximum 
LIG Last Interglacial 
LKS Lanzante-Klein-Seidel 
LLGHG long-lived greenhouse gas 
LLJ Low-Level Jet 
LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 
LMD Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique 
LOA Laboratoire d’Optique Atmospherique 
LOSU level of scientific understanding 
LSCE Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement 
LSM land surface model 
LSW Labrador Sea Water 
LW longwave 
LWP liquid water path 
Ma million years ago 
MAM March, April, May 
MARGO Multiproxy Approach for the Reconstruction of the Glacial Ocean surface 
mb millibar 
MDI Michelson Doppler Imager 
Meteosat European geostationary meteorological satellite 
MFR Maximum Feasible Reduction 
MHT meridional heat transport 
MINOS Mediterranean Intensive Oxidants Study 
MIP Model Intercomparison Project 
MIRAGE Megacity Impacts on Regional and Global Environments 
MISO Monsoon Intra-Seasonal Oscillation 
MISR Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer 
MJO Madden-Julian Oscillation 
MLS Microwave Limb Sounder 
MMD Multi-Model Data set (at PCMDI) 
MOC Meridional Overturning Circulation 
MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer 
mol mole 
MONEX Monsoon Experiment 
MOPITT Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere 
MOZAIC Measurement of Ozone by Airbus In-service Aircraft 
MPI Max Planck Institute 
MPIC Max Planck Institute for Chemistry 
MPLNET Micro-Pulse Lidar Network 
MRI Meteorological Research Institute of JMA 
MSLP mean sea level pressure 
MSU Microwave Sounding Unit 
Myr million years 
N2 molecular nitrogen 
N2O nitrous oxide 
N2O5 dinitrogen pentoxide 
NADW North Atlantic Deep Water 
NAH North Atlantic subtropical high 
NAM Northern Annular Mode 
NAMS North American Monsoon System 
NAO North Atlantic Oscillation 
NARCCAP North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program 
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research 
NCDC National Climatic Data Center 
NCEP National Centers for Environmental Prediction 
NEAQS New England Air Quality Study 
NEP net ecosystem production 
NESDIS National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service 
NGRIP North Greenland Ice Core Project 
NH Northern Hemisphere 
NH3 ammonia 
NH4+ ammonium ion 
NIES National Institute for Environmental Studies 
NIWA National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research 
NMAT Nighttime Marine Air Temperature 
NMHC non-methane hydrocarbon 
NMVOC non-methane volatile organic compound 
NO nitric oxide 
NO2 nitrogen dioxide 
NO3 nitrate radical 
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 
NOx reactive nitrogen oxides (the sum of NO and NO2
NPI North Pacific Index 
NPIW North Pacific Intermediate Water 
NPP net primary productivity 
NRA NCEP/NCAR reanalysis 
NVAP NASA Water Vapor Project 
O(1D) oxygen radical in the 1D excited state 
O2 molecular oxygen 
O3 ozone 
OASIS Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil 
OCTS Ocean Colour and Temperature Scanner 
ODS ozone-depleting substances 
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 
OGCM Ocean General Circulation Model 
OH hydroxyl radical 
OIO iodine dioxide 
OLR outgoing longwave radiation 
OMI Ozone Monitoring Instrument 
OPAC Optical Parameters of Aerosols and Clouds 
PCMDI Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison 
pCO2 partial pressure of CO2 
PDF probability density function 
PDI Power Dissipation Index 
PDO Pacific Decadal Oscillation 
PDSI Palmer Drought Severity Index 
PET potential evapotranspiration 
PETM Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum 
PFC perfluorocarbon 
Pg petagram (1015 grams) 
PMIP Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project 
PMOD Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos 
PNA Pacific-North American pattern 
PNNL Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 
PNV potential natural vegetation 
POA primary organic aerosol 
POC particulate organic carbon 
POLDER Polarization and Directionality of the Earth’s Reflectance 
POM particulate organic matter 
ppb parts per billion 
ppm parts per million 
PR Precipitation Radar 
PREC/L Precipitation Reconstruction over Land (PREC/L) 
PROVOST Prediction of Climate Variations on Seasonal to Interannual Time Scales 
PRP Partial Radiative Perturbation 
PSA Pacific-South American pattern 
PSC polar stratospheric cloud 
PSMSL Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level 
PSU Pennsylvania State University 
psu Practical Salinity Unit 
QBO Quasi-Biennial Oscillation 
RATPAC Radiosonde Atmospheric Temperature Products for Assessing Climate 
RCM Regional Climate Model 
REA Reliability Ensemble Average 
REML restricted maximum likelihood 
RF radiative forcing 
RFI Radiative Forcing Index 
RH relative humidity 
RMS root-mean square 
RSL relative sea level 
RSS Remote Sensing Systems 
RTMIP Radiative-Transfer Model Intercomparison Project 
SACZ South Atlantic Convergence Zone 
SAFARI Southern African Regional Science Initiative 
SAGE Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment or Centre for Sustainability and the Global Environment 
SAM Southern Annular Mode or Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement 
SAMS South American Monsoon System 
SAMW Subantarctic Mode Water 
SAR Second Assessment Report or Synthetic Aperture Radar 
SARB Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget 
SARR Space Absolute Radiometric Reference 
SAT surface air temperature 
SCA snow-covered area 
SCIAMACHY SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY 
SCM Simple Climate Model 
SeaWiFs Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor 
SF6  sulphur hexafluoride 
SH Southern Hemisphere 
SIO Scripps Institution of Oceanography 
SIS Small Island States 
SLE sea level equivalent 
SLP sea level pressure 
SMB surface mass balance 
SMM Solar Maximum Mission 
SMMR Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer 
SO Southern Oscillation 
SO2 sulphur dioxide 
SO4 sulphate 
SOA secondary organic aerosol 
SOHO Solar Heliospheric Observatory 
SOI Southern Oscillation Index 
SOM soil organic matter 
SON September, October, November 
SORCE Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment 
SPARC Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate 
SPCZ South Pacific Convergence Zone 
SPM Summary for Policymakers 
SRALT Satellite radar altimetry 
SRES Special Report on Emission Scenarios 
SSM/I Special Sensor Microwave/Imager 
SST sea surface temperature 
STARDEX STAtistical and Regional dynamical Downscaling of EXtremes for European regions 
STE stratosphere-troposphere exchange 
STMW Subtropical Mode Water 
SUNY State University of New York 
Sv Sverdrup (106 m3 s–1
SW shortwave 
SWE snow water equivalent 
SWH significant wave height 
T/P TOPEX/Poseidon 
T12 HIRS channel 12 
T2 MSU channel 2 
T2LT MSU lower-troposphere channel 
T3 MSU channel 3 
T4 MSU channel 4 
TAR Third Assessment Report 
TARFOX Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Experiment 
TBO Tropospheric Biennial Oscillation 
TCR transient climate response 
TEAP Technology and Economic Assessment Panel 
TGBM Tide Gauge Bench Mark 
TGICA Task Group on Data and Scenario Support for Impact and Climate Analysis (IPCC) 
THC Thermohaline Circulation 
THIR Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer 
TIM Total Solar Irradiance Monitor 
TIROS Television InfraRed Observation Satellite 
TMI TRMM microwave imager 
TOA top of the atmosphere 
TOGA Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere 
TOM top of the model 
TOMS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer 
TOPEX TOPography EXperiment 
TOVS TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder 
TransCom 3 Atmospheric Tracer Transport Model Intercomparison Project 
TRMM Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 
TSI total solar irradiance 
UAH University of Alabama in Huntsville 
UARS Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite 
UCDW Upper Circumpolar Deep Water 
UCI University of California at Irvine 
UEA University of East Anglia 
UHI Urban Heat Island 
UIO University of Oslo 
UKMO United Kingdom Meteorological Office 
ULAQ University of L’Aquila 
UMD University of Maryland 
UMI University of Michigan 
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme 
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 
USHCN US Historical Climatology Network 
UTC Coordinated Universal Time 
UTRH upper-tropospheric relative humidity 
UV ultraviolet 
UVic University of Victoria 
VIRGO Variability of Irradiance and Gravity Oscillations 
VIRS Visible Infrared Scanner 
VOC volatile organic compound 
VOS Voluntary Observing Ships 
VRGCM Variable-Resolution General Circulation Model 
W watt 
WAIS West Antarctic Ice Sheet 
WCRP World Climate Research Programme 
WDCGG World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases 
WGI IPCC Working Group I 
WGII IPCC Working Group II 
WGIII IPCC Working Group III 
WGMS World Glacier Monitoring Service 
WMDW Western Mediterranean Deep Water 
WMO World Meteorological Organization 
WOCE World Ocean Circulation Experiment 
WRE Wigley, Richels and Edmonds (1996) 
WWR World Weather Records 
ZIA 0°C isotherm altitude 
τaer aerosol optical depth