IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
Climate Change 2007: Working Group I: The Physical Science Basis
Box 3.3, Figure 1

Box 3.3, Figure 1. Composites of time-height development of the NAM index for 18 weak vortex events. The events are selected by the dates on which the 10 hPa annular mode index crossed –3.0. Day 0 is the start of the weak vortex event. The indices are non-dimensional; the contour interval for the colour shading is 0.25, and 0.5 for the white lines. Values between –0.25 and 0.25 are not shaded. Yellow and red shading indicates negative NAM indices and blue shading indicates positive indices. The thin horizontal lines indicate the approximate boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere. Modified from Baldwin and Dunkerton (2001).