10.3.6.3 Tropical Cyclones (Hurricanes)
Earlier studies assessed in the TAR showed that future tropical cyclones would likely become more severe with greater wind speeds and more intense precipitation. More recent modelling experiments have addressed possible changes in tropical cyclones in a warmer climate and generally confirmed those earlier results. These studies fall into two categories: those with model grid resolutions that only roughly represent some aspects of individual tropical cyclones, and those with model grids of sufficient resolution to reasonably simulate individual tropical cyclones.
In the first category, a number of climate change experiments with global models have started to simulate some characteristics of individual tropical cyclones, although classes of models with 50 to 100 km resolution or lower cannot accurately simulate observed tropical cyclone intensities due to the limitations of the relatively coarse grid spacing (e.g., Yoshimura et al., 2006). A study with roughly 100-km grid spacing shows a decrease in tropical cyclone frequency globally and in the North Pacific but a regional increase over the North Atlantic and no significant changes in maximum intensity (Sugi et al., 2002). Yoshimura et al. (2006) use the same model but different SST patterns and two different convection schemes, and show a decrease in the global frequency of relatively weak tropical cyclones but no significant change in the frequency of intense storms. They also show that the regional changes are dependent on the SST pattern, and precipitation near the storm centres could increase in the future. Another study using a 50 km resolution model confirms this dependence on SST pattern, and also shows a consistent increase in precipitation intensity in future tropical cyclones (Chauvin et al., 2006). Another global modelling study with roughly a 100-km grid spacing finds a 6% decrease in tropical storms globally and a slight increase in intensity, with both increases and decreases regionally related to the El Niño-like base state response in the tropical Pacific to increased greenhouse gases (McDonald et al., 2005). Another study with the same resolution model indicates decreases in tropical cyclone frequency and intensity but more mean and extreme precipitation from the tropical cyclones simulated in the future in the western north Pacific (Hasegawa and Emori, 2005). An AOGCM analysis with a coarser-resolution atmospheric model (T63, or about 200-km grid spacing) shows little change in overall numbers of tropical storms in that model, but a slight decrease in medium-intensity storms in a warmer climate (Bengtsson et al., 2006). In a global warming simulation with a coarse-resolution atmospheric model (T42, or about 300-km grid spacing), the frequency of global tropical cyclone occurrence did not change significantly, but the mean intensity of the global tropical cyclones increased significantly (Tsutsui, 2002). Thus, from this category of coarser-grid models that can only represent rudimentary aspects of tropical cyclones, there is no consistent evidence for large changes in either frequency or intensity of these models’ representation of tropical cyclones, but there is a consistent response of more intense precipitation from future storms in a warmer climate. Also note that the decreasing tropical precipitation in future climate in Yoshimura et al. (2006) is for SSTs held fixed as atmospheric CO2 is increased, a situation that does not occur in any global coupled model.
In the second category, studies have been performed with models that have been able to credibly simulate many aspects of tropical cyclones. For example, Knutson and Tuleya (2004) use a high-resolution (down to 9 km) mesoscale hurricane model to simulate hurricanes with intensities reaching about 60 to 70 m s–1, depending on the treatment of moist convection in the model. They use mean tropical conditions from nine global climate models with increased CO2 to simulate tropical cyclones with 14% more intense central pressure falls, 6% higher maximum surface wind speeds and about 20% greater near-storm rainfall after an idealised 80-year buildup of CO2 at 1% yr–1 compounded (warming given by TCR shown for models in Chapter 8). Using a multiple nesting technique, an AOGCM was used to force a regional model over Australasia and the western Pacific with 125-km grid resolution, with an embedded 30-km resolution model over the south-western Pacific (Walsh et al., 2004). At that 30-km resolution, the model is able to closely simulate the climatology of the observed tropical cyclone lower wind speed threshold of 17 m s–1. Tropical cyclone occurrence (in terms of days of tropical cyclone activity) is slightly greater than observed, and the somewhat weaker than observed pressure gradients near the storm centres are associated with lower than observed maximum wind speeds, likely due to the 30-km grid spacing that is too coarse to capture extreme pressure gradients and winds. For 3 × atmospheric CO2 in that model configuration, the simulated tropical cyclones experienced a 56% increase in the number of storms with maximum wind speed greater than 30 m s–1 and a 26% increase in the number of storms with central pressures less than 970 hPa, with no large changes in frequency and movement of tropical cyclones for that southwest Pacific region. It should also be noted that ENSO fluctuations have a strong impact on patterns of tropical cyclone occurrence in the southern Pacific (Nguyen and Walsh, 2001), and that uncertainty with respect future ENSO behaviour (Section 10.3.5.1) contributes to uncertainty with respect to tropical cyclones (Walsh, 2004).
In another experiment with a high resolution global model that is able to generate tropical cyclones that begin to approximate real storms, a global 20-km grid atmospheric model was run in time slice experiments for a present-day 10-year period and a 10-year period at the end of the 21st century for the A1B scenario to examine changes in tropical cyclones. Observed climatological SSTs were used to force the atmospheric model for the 10-year period at the end of the 20th century, time-mean SST anomalies from an AOGCM simulation for the future climate were added to the observed SSTs and atmospheric composition was changed in the model to be consistent with the A1B scenario. At that resolution, tropical cyclone characteristics, numbers and tracks were relatively well simulated for present-day climate, although simulated wind speed intensities were somewhat weaker than observed intensities (Oouchi et al., 2006). In that study, tropical cyclone frequency decreased 30% globally (but increased about 34% in the North Atlantic). The strongest tropical cyclones with extreme surface winds increased in number while weaker storms decreased. The tracks were not appreciably altered, and maximum peak wind speeds in future simulated tropical cyclones increased by about 14% in that model, although statistically significant increases were not found in all basins. As noted above, the competing effects of greater stabilisation of the tropical troposphere (less storms) and greater SSTs (the storms that form are more intense) likely contribute to these changes except for the tropical North Atlantic where there are greater SST increases than in the other basins in that model. Therefore, the SST warming has a greater effect than the vertical stabilisation in the Atlantic and produces not only more storms but also more intense storms there. However, these regional changes are largely dependent on the spatial pattern of future simulated SST changes (Yoshimura et al., 2006).
Sugi et al. (2002) show that the global-scale reduction in tropical cyclone frequency is closely related to weakening of tropospheric circulation in the tropics in terms of vertical mass flux. They note that a significant increase in dry static stability in the tropical troposphere and little increase in tropical precipitation (or convective heating) are the main factors contributing to the weakening of the tropospheric circulation. Sugi and Yoshimura (2004) investigate a mechanism of this tropical precipitation change. They show that the effect of CO2 enhancement (without changing SST conditions, which is not realistic as noted above) is a decrease in mean precipitation (Sugi and Yoshimura, 2004) and a decrease in the number of tropical cyclones as simulated in an atmospheric model with about 100 km resolution (Yoshimura and Sugi, 2005). Future changes in the large-scale steering flow as a mechanism to deduce possible changes in tropical cyclone tracks in the western North Pacific (Wu and Wang, 2004) were analysed to show different shifts at different times in future climate change experiments along with a dependence of such shifts on the degree of El Niño-like mean climate change in the Pacific (see Section 10.3.5).
A synthesis of the model results to date indicates that, for a future warmer climate, coarse-resolution models show few consistent changes in tropical cyclones, with results dependent on the model, although those models do show a consistent increase in precipitation intensity in future storms. Higher-resolution models that more credibly simulate tropical cyclones project some consistent increase in peak wind intensities, but a more consistent projected increase in mean and peak precipitation intensities in future tropical cyclones. There is also a less certain possibility of a decrease in the number of relatively weak tropical cyclones, increased numbers of intense tropical cyclones and a global decrease in total numbers of tropical cyclones.