10.5.4.3 Diagnosing Drivers of Uncertainty from Ensemble Results
Figure 10.27a shows the agreement between annual changes simulated by members of the AR4 multi-model ensemble for 2080 to 2099 relative to 1980 to 1999 for the A1B scenario, calculated as in Räisänen (2001). For precipitation, the agreement increases with spatial scale. For surface temperature, the agreement is high even at local scales, indicating the robustness of the simulated warming (see also Figure 10.8, discussed in Section 10.3.2.1). Differences in model formulation are the dominant contributor to ensemble spread, though the role of internal variability increases at smaller scales (Figure 10.27b). The agreement between AR4 ensemble members is slightly higher compared with the earlier CMIP2 ensemble of Räisänen (2001) (also reported in the TAR), and internal variability explains a smaller fraction of the ensemble spread. This is expected, given the larger forcing and responses in the A1B scenario for 2080 to 2099 compared to the transient response to doubled CO2 considered by Räisänen (2001), although the use of an updated set of models may also contribute. For seasonal changes, internal variability is found to be comparable with model differences as a source of uncertainty in local precipitation and SLP changes (although not for surface temperature) in both multi-model and perturbed physics ensembles (Räisänen, 2001; Murphy et al., 2004). Consequently the local seasonal changes for precipitation and SLP are not consistent in the AR4 ensemble over large areas of the globe (i.e., the multi-model mean change does not exceed the ensemble standard deviation; see Figure 10.9), whereas the surface temperature changes are consistent almost everywhere, as discussed in Section 10.3.2.1.
Figure 10.27. Statistics of annual mean responses to the SRES A1B scenario, for 2080 to 2099 relative to 1980 to 1999, calculated from the 21-member AR4 multi-model ensemble using the methodology of Räisänen (2001). Results are expressed as a function of horizontal scale on the x axis (‘Loc’: grid box scale; ‘Hem’: hemispheric scale; ‘Glob’: global mean) plotted against the y axis showing (a) the relative agreement between ensemble members, a dimensionless quantity defined as the square of the ensemble-mean response (corrected to avoid sampling bias) divided by the mean squared response of individual ensemble members, and (b) the dimensionless fraction of internal variability relative to the ensemble variance of responses. Values are shown for surface air temperature, precipitation and sea level pressure. The low agreement of SLP changes at hemispheric and global scales reflects problems with the conservation of total atmospheric mass in some of the models, however, this has no practical significance because SLP changes at these scales are extremely small.
Wang and Swail (2006b) examine the relative importance of internal variability, differences in radiative forcing and model differences in explaining the transient response of ocean wave height using three AOGCMs each run for three plausible forcing scenarios, and find model differences to be the largest source of uncertainty in the simulated changes.
Selten et al. (2004) report a 62-member initial condition ensemble of simulations of 1940 to 2080 including natural and anthropogenic forcings. They find an individual member that reproduces the observed trend in the NAO over the past few decades, but no trend in the ensemble mean, and suggest that the observed change can be explained through internal variability associated with a mode driven by increases in precipitation over the tropical Indian Ocean. Terray et al. (2004) find that the ARPEGE coupled ocean-atmosphere model shows small increases in the residence frequency of the positive phase of the NAO in response to SRES A2 and B2 forcing, whereas larger increases are found when SST changes prescribed from the coupled experiments are used to drive a version of the atmosphere model with enhanced resolution over the North Atlantic and Europe (Gibelin and Déqué, 2003).
Figure 10.25 compares global mean transient and equilibrium changes simulated by the AR4 multi-model ensembles against perturbed physics ensembles (M. Collins et al., 2006; Webb et al., 2006) designed to produce credible present-day simulations while sampling a wide range of multiple parameter perturbations and climate sensitivities. The AR4 ensembles partially sample structural variations in model components, whereas the perturbed physics ensembles sample atmospheric parameter uncertainties for a fixed choice of model structure. The results show similar relationships between TCR, climate sensitivity and precipitation change in both types of ensemble. The perturbed physics ensembles contain several members with sensitivities higher than the multi-model range, while some of the multi-model transient simulations give TCR values slightly below the range found in the perturbed physics ensemble (Figure 10.25a,b).
Soden and Held (2006) find that differences in cloud feedback are the dominant source of uncertainty in the transient response of surface temperature in the AR4 ensemble (see also Section 18.104.22.168), as in previous IPCC assessments. Webb et al. (2006) compare equilibrium radiative feedbacks in a 9-member multi-model ensemble against those simulated in a 128-member perturbed physics ensemble with multiple parameter perturbations. They find that the ranges of climate sensitivity in both ensembles are explained mainly by differences in the response of shortwave cloud forcing in areas where changes in low-level clouds predominate. Bony and Dufresne (2005) find that marine boundary layer clouds in areas of large-scale subsidence provide the largest source of spread in tropical cloud feedbacks in the AR4 ensemble. Narrowing the uncertainty in cloud feedback may require both improved parametrizations of cloud microphysical properties (e.g., Tsushima et al., 2006) and improved representations of cloud macrophysical properties, through improved parametrizations of other physical processes (e.g., Williams et al., 2001) and/or increases in resolution (Palmer, 2005).