For the A1B scenario, the MMD-A1B models show a median increase of 3.3°C (see Table 11.1) in annual mean temperature by the end of the 21st century. The median warming varies seasonally from 2.7°C in JJA to 3.6°C in DJF, and is likely to increase northward in the area, particularly in winter, and from sea to land (Figure 11.9). Studies based on earlier AOGCM simulations (Douville et al., 2000; Lal and Harasawa, 2001; Lal et al., 2001; Rupa Kumar and Ashrit, 2001; Rupa Kumar et al., 2002, 2003; Ashrit et al., 2003; May, 2004b) support this picture. The tendency of the warming to be more pronounced in winter is also a conspicuous feature of the observed temperature trends over India (Rupa Kumar et al., 2002, 2003).
Downscaled projections using the Hadley Centre Regional Model (HadRM2) indicate future increases in extreme daily maximum and minimum temperatures throughout South Asia due to the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations. This projected increase is of the order of 2°C to 4°C in the mid-21st century under the IPCC Scenario IS92a in both minimum and maximum temperatures (Krishna Kumar et al., 2003). Results from a more recent RCM, PRECIS, indicate that the night temperatures increase faster than the day temperatures, with the implication that cold extremes are very likely to be less severe in the future (Rupa Kumar et al., 2006).
Figure 11.9. Temperature and precipitation changes over Asia from the MMD-A1B simulations. Top row: Annual mean, DJF and JJA temperature change between 1980 to 1999 and 2080 to 2099, averaged over 21 models. Middle row: same as top, but for fractional change in precipitation. Bottom row: number of models out of 21 that project increases in precipitation.