IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
Climate Change 2007: Working Group I: The Physical Science Basis The Global Temperature Potential

Shine et al. (2005b) proposed the GTP as a new relative emission metric. The GTP is defined as the ratio between the global mean surface temperature change at a given future time horizon (TH) following an emission (pulse or sustained) of a compound x relative to a reference gas r (e.g., CO2):

where DTHx denotes the global mean surface temperature change after H years following an emission of compound x. The GTPs do not require simulations with AOGCMs, but are given as transparent and simple formulas that employ a small number of input parameters required for calculation. Note that while the GWP is an integral quantity over the time horizon (i.e., the contribution of the RF at the beginning and end of the time horizon is exactly equal), the GTP uses the temperature change at time H (i.e., RF closer to time H contributes relatively more). The GTP metric requires knowledge of the same parameters as the GWP metric (radiative efficiency and lifetimes), but in addition, the response times for the climate system must be known, in particular if the lifetime of component x is very different from the lifetime of the reference gas. Differences in climate efficacies can easily be incorporated into the GTP metric. Due to the inclusion of the response times for the climate system, the GTP values for pulse emissions of gases with shorter lifetimes than the reference gas will be lower than the corresponding GWP values. As noted by Shine et al. (2005b), there is a near equivalence between the GTP for sustained emission changes and the pulse GWP. The GTP metric has the potential advantage over GWP that it is more directly related to surface temperature change.