2.5.8 Effects of Carbon Dioxide Changes on Climate via Plant Physiology: ‘Physiological Forcing’
As well as exerting an RF on the climate system, increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 can perturb the climate system through direct effects on plant physiology. Plant stomatal apertures open less under higher CO2 concentrations (Field et al., 1995), which directly reduces the flux of moisture from the surface to the atmosphere through transpiration (Sellers et al., 1996). A decrease in moisture flux modifies the surface energy balance, increasing the ratio of sensible heat flux to latent heat flux and therefore warming the air near the surface (Sellers et al., 1996; Betts et al., 1997; Cox et al., 1999). Betts et al. (2004) proposed the term ‘physiological forcing’ for this mechanism. Although no studies have yet explicitly quantified the present-day temperature response to physiological forcing, the presence of this forcing has been detected in global hydrological budgets (Gedney et al., 2006; Section 9.5). This process can be considered a non-initial radiative effect, as distinct from a feedback, since the mechanism involves a direct response to increasing atmospheric CO2 and not a response to climate change. It is not possible to quantify this with RF. Reduced global transpiration would also be expected to reduce atmospheric water vapour causing a negative forcing, but no estimates of this have been made.
Increased CO2 concentrations can also ‘fertilize’ plants by stimulating photosynthesis, which models suggest has contributed to increased vegetation cover and leaf area over the 20th century (Cramer et al., 2001). Increases in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, a remote sensing product indicative of leaf area, biomass and potential photosynthesis, have been observed (Zhou et al., 2001), although other causes including climate change itself are also likely to have contributed. Increased vegetation cover and leaf area would decrease surface albedo, which would act to oppose the increase in albedo due to deforestation. The RF due to this process has not been evaluated and there is a very low scientific understanding of these effects.