IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
Climate Change 2007: Working Group I: The Physical Science Basis Scattering Aerosol

For idealised global perturbations, the efficacy for the direct effect of scattering aerosol is very similar to that for changes in the solar constant (Cook and Highwood, 2004). As for ozone, realistic perturbations of scattering aerosol exhibit larger changes at higher latitudes and thus have a higher efficacy than solar changes (Hansen et al., 2005). Although the number of modelling results is limited, it is expected that efficacies would be similar to other solar effects; thus there is medium confidence that efficacies for scattering aerosol would be in the 0.7 to 1.1 range. Efficacies are likely to be similar for scattering aerosol in the troposphere and stratosphere.

With the formulation of RF employed in this chapter, the efficacy of the cloud albedo RF accounts for cloud lifetime effects (Section 2.8.3). Only two studies contained enough information to calculate efficacy in this way and both found efficacies higher than 1.0. However, the uncertainties in quantifying the cloud lifetime effect make this efficacy very uncertain. If cloud lifetime effects were excluded from the efficacy term, the cloud albedo efficacy would very likely be similar to that of the direct effect (see Figure 2.19).