220.127.116.11 Subsea Permafrost
Subsea (or offshore) permafrost refers to permafrost occurring beneath the seabed. It exists in continental shelves of the polar regions. Subsea permafrost formed either in response to the negative mean annual sea-bottom temperature or as the result of sea level rise so that terrestrial permafrost was covered by seawater. Although the potential release of methane trapped within subsea permafrost may provide a positive feedback to climate warming, available observations do not permit an assessment of changes that might have occurred.
4.7.3 Changes in Seasonally Frozen Ground
Seasonally frozen ground refers to a soil layer that freezes and thaws annually regardless of whether there is underlying permafrost. It includes both seasonal soil freeze-thaw in non-permafrost regions and the active layer over permafrost. Significant changes in seasonally frozen ground have been observed worldwide.