IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
Climate Change 2007: Working Group I: The Physical Science Basis

References

AchutaRao, K.M. et al., 2006: Variability of ocean heat uptake: Reconciling observations and models, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C05019, doi:10.1029/2005JC003136.

Andersson, H.C., 2002: Influence of long-term regional and large-scale atmospheric circulation on the Baltic sea level. Tellus, A54, 76–88.

Andreev, A., and S. Watanabe, 2002: Temporal changes in dissolved oxygen of the intermediate water in the subarctic North Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(14), 1680, doi:10.1029/2002GL015021.

Andrie, C., et al., 2003: Variability of AABW properties in the equatorial channel at 35 degrees W. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(5), 8007, doi:10.1029/2002GL015766.

Antonov, J.I., S. Levitus, and T.P. Boyer, 2002: Steric sea level variations during 1957-1994: Importance of salinity. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C12), 8013, doi:10.1029/2001JC000964.

Antonov, J.I., S. Levitus, and T.P. Boyer, 2005: Steric variability of the world ocean, 1955-2003. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32(12), L12602, doi:10.1029/2005GL023112.

Aoki, S., M. Yoritaka, and A. Masuyama, 2003: Multidecadal warming of subsurface temperature in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C4), 8081, doi:10.1029/JC000307.

Aoki, S., N.L. Bindoff, and J.A. Church, 2005a: Interdecadal water mass changes in the Southern Ocean between 30E and 160E. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L07607, doi:10.1029/2004GL022220.

Aoki, S., S.R. Rintoul, S. Ushio, and S. Watanabe, 2005b: Freshening of the Adélie Land Bottom water near 140°E. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L23601, doi:10.1029/2005GL024246.

Baringer, M.O., and J.C. Larsen, 2001: Sixteen years of Florida Current transport at 27° N. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(16), 3179–3182.

Bates, N.R., A.C. Pequignet, R.J. Johnson, and N. Gruber, 2002: A short-term sink for atmospheric CO2 in subtropical mode water of the North Atlantic Ocean. Nature, 420(6915), 489–493.

Beaugrand, G., and P.C. Reid, 2003: Long-term changes in phytoplankton, zooplankton and salmon related to climate. Global Change Biol., 9(6), 801–817.

Belkin, I.M., 2004: Propagation of the “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1990s around the northern North. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L08306, doi:10.1029/2003GL019334.

Beltrami, H., J.E. Smerdon, H.N. Pollack, and S. Huang, 2002: Continental heat gain in the global climate system. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, doi:10.1029/2001GL014310.

Bersch, M., 2002: North Atlantic Oscillation-induced changes of the upper layer circulation in the northern North Atlantic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C10), 3156, doi:10.1029/JC000901.

Bi, D.H., W.F. Budd, A.C. Hirst, and X.R. Wu, 2001: Collapse and reorganisation of the Southern Ocean overturning under global warming in a coupled model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(20), 3927–3930.

Biasutti, M., D.S. Battisti, and E.S. Sarachik, 2003: The annual cycle over the tropical Atlantic, South America, and Africa. J. Clim., 16(15), 2491–2508.

Bindoff, N.L., and T.J. McDougall, 2000: Decadal changes along an Indian Ocean section at 32 degrees S and their interpretation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30(6), 1207–1222.

Björk, G., et al., 2002: Return of the cold halocline layer to the Amundsen Basin of the Arctic Ocean: Implications for the sea ice mass balance. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(11), 1513, doi:10.1029/2001GL014157.

Bouligand, R., and P.A. Pirazzoli, 1999: Les surcotes et les décotes marines à Brest, étude statistique et évolution. Oceanol. Acta, 22(2), 153–166.

Boyer, T.P., J.I. Antonov, S. Levitus, and R. Locarnini, 2005: Linear trends of salinity for the world ocean, 1955-1998. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L01604, doi:1029/2004GL021791.

Boyer, T.P., et al., 2002: World ocean database 2001, Volume 2: Temporal distribution of bathythermograph profiles. In: NOAA Atlas NESDIS 43 [Levitus, S. (ed.)]. Vol. 2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 119 pp, CD-ROMs.

Brankart, J.M., and N. Pinardi, 2001: Abrupt cooling of the Mediterranean Levantine Intermediate Water at the beginning of the 1980s: Observational evidence and model simulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31(8), 2307–2320.

Bromirski, P.D., R.E. Flick, and D.R. Cayan, 2003: Storminess variability along the California coast: 1858-2000. J. Clim., 16, 982–993.

Bryden, H.L., E.L. McDonagh, and B.A. King, 2003: Changes in ocean water mass properties: Oscillations or trends? Science, 300, 2086–2088.

Bryden, H.L., H.R. Longworth, and S.A. Cunningham, 2005: Slowing of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 25°N. Nature, 438, 655–657, doi:10.1038/nature04385.

Bryden, H.L., et al., 1996: Decadal changes in water mass characteristics at 24 degrees N in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. J. Clim., 9(12), 3162–3186.

Cabanes, C., A. Cazenave, and C. Le Provost, 2001: Sea level change from Topex-Poseidon altimetry for 1993-1999 and possible warming of the southern oceans. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(1), 9–12.

Cai, W., 2006: Antarctic ozone depletion causes an intensification of the Southern Ocean super-gyre circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, doi:1029/2005GL024911.

Caldeira, K., and M.E. Wickett, 2003: Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature, 425(6956), 365.

Carmack, E.C., et al., 1995: Evidence for warming of Atlantic Water in the southern Canadian Basin of the Arctic-Ocean - Results from the Larsen-93 Expedition. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(9), 1061–1064.

Carton, J., B. Giese, and S. Grodsky, 2005: Sea level rise and the warming of the oceans in the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) ocean reanalysis. J. Geophys. Res., 110, C09006, doi:1029/2004JC002817.

Cazenave, A., and R.S. Nerem, 2004: Present-day sea level change: observations and causes. Rev. Geophys., 42(3), RG3001, doi:10.1029/2003RG000139.

Chambers, D., J.C. Ries, C.K. Shum, and B.D. Tapley, 1998: On the use of tide gauges to determine altimeter drift. J. Geophys. Res., 103(C6), 12885–12890.

Chambers, D.P., et al., 2002: Low-frequency variations in global mean sea level: 1950-2000. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C4), doi:10.1029/2001JC001089.

Chao, B., 1994: Man-made lakes and global sea level. Nature, 370, 258.

Chavez, F.P., J. Ryan, S.E. Lluch-Cota, and M. Niquen, 2003: From anchovies to sardines and back: Multidecadal change in the Pacific Ocean. Science, 299(5604), 217–221.

Chelton, B., et al., 2001: Satellite altimetry. In: Satellite Altimetry and Earth Sciences: A Handbook of Techniques and Applications [Fu, L.-L., and A. Cazenave (eds.)]. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 1–131.

Church, J.A., and N.J. White, 2006: A 20th century acceleration in global sea-level rise. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L01602, doi:10.1029/2005GL024826.

Church, J.A., N.J. White, and J.R. Hunter, 2006: Sea-level rise at tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean islands. Global Planet. Change, 53, 155–168.

Church, J.A., et al., 2001: Changes in sea level. In: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Houghton, J.T., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 639–693.

Church, J.A., et al., 2004: Estimates of the regional distribution of sea-level rise over the 1950 to 2000 period. J. Clim., 17(13), 2609–2625.

Clark, P.U., N.G. Pisias, T.F. Stocker, and A.J. Weaver, 2002: The role of the thermohaline circulation in abrupt climate change. Nature, 415, 863–869.

Comiso, J.C., 2002: A rapidly declining perennial sea ice cover in the Arctic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1956–1959.

Comiso, J.C., 2003: Warming trends in the Arctic from clear sky satellite observations. J. Clim., 16(21), 3498–3510.

Conkright, M.E., et al., 2002: World ocean database 2001, Volume 1: Introduction. In: NOAA Atlas NESDIS 42 [Levitus, S. (ed.). Vol. 1. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 159 pp, CD-ROMs.

Cunningham, S.A., S.G. Alderson, B.A. King, and M.A. Brandon, 2003: Transport and variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in Drake Passage. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C5), 8084, doi:10.1029/2001JC001147.

Curry, R., and C. Mauritzen, 2005: Dilution of the northern North Atlantic Ocean in recent decades. Science, 308(5729), 1772–1774.

Curry, R., B. Dickson, and I. Yashayaev, 2003: A change in the freshwater balance of the Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades. Nature, 426(6968), 826–829.

Deutsch, C., S. Emerson, and L. Thompson, 2005: Fingerprints of climate change in North Pacific oxygen. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L16604, doi:10.1029/2005GL023190.

Dickson, B., et al., 2002: Rapid freshening of the deep North Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades. Nature, 416(6883), 832–837.

Dickson, R., et al., 1996: Long-term coordinated changes in the convective activity of the North Atlantic. Prog. Oceanogr., 38, 241–295.

Dickson, R.R., R. Curry, and I. Yashayaev, 2003: Recent changes in the North Atlantic. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A, 361(1810), 1917–1933.

Dickson, R.R., J. Meincke, S.A. Malmberg, and A.J. Lee, 1988: The Great Salinity Anomaly in the Northern North Atlantic 1968-1982. Prog. Oceanogr., 20(2), 103–151.

Doney, S.C., J.L. Bullister, and R. Wanninkhof, 1998: Climatic variability in upper ocean ventilation rates diagnosed using chlorofluorocarbons. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(9), 1399–1402.

Donnelly, J.P., P. Cleary, P. Newby, and R. Ettinger, 2004: Coupling instrumental and geological records of sea-level change: Evidence from southern New England of an increase in the rate of sea-level rise in the late 19th century. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(5), L05203, doi:10.1029/2003GL018933.

Dore, J.E., R. Lukas, D.W. Sadler, and D.M. Karl, 2003: Climate-driven changes to the atmospheric CO2 sink in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean. Nature, 424(6950), 754–757.

Douglas, B.C., 1992: Global sea level acceleration. J. Geophys. Res., 97(C8), 12699–12706.

Douglas, B.C., 2001: Sea level change in the era of the recording tide gauges. In: Sea Level Rise: History and Consequences [Douglas, B.C., Kearney, M.S., and S.P. Leatherman (eds.)]. Academic Press, New York, pp. 37–64.

Ekman, M., 1988: The world’s longest continued series of sea level observations. Pure Appl. Geophys., 127, 73–77.

Emerson, S., S. Mecking, and J. Abell, 2001: The biological pump in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean: Nutrient sources, Redfield ratios, and recent changes. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15(3), 535–554.

Emerson, S., Y.W. Watanabe, T. Ono, and S. Mecking, 2004: Temporal trends in apparent oxygen utilization in the upper pycnocline of the North Pacific: 1980-2000. J. Oceanogr., 60(1), 139–147.

Fahrbach, E., et al., 2004: Decadal-scale variations of water mass properties in the deep Weddell Sea. Ocean Dyn., 54(1), 77–91.

Feely, R.A., and C.T.A. Chen, 1982: The effect of excess CO2 on the calculated calcite and aragonite saturation horizons in the northeast Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 9(11), 1294–1297.

Feely, R.A., R. Wanninkhof, T. Takahashi, and P. Tans, 1999: Influence of El Niño on the equatorial Pacific contribution to atmospheric CO2 accumulation. Nature, 398(6728), 597–601.

Feely, R.A., et al., 2002: In situ calcium carbonate dissolution in the Pacific Ocean. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16(4), 1144, doi:10.1029/2002GB001866.

Feely, R.A., et al., 2004: Impact of anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 system in the oceans. Science, 305(5682), 362–366.

Feng, M., and G. Meyers, 2003: Interannual variability in the tropical Indian Ocean: A two-year time-scale of Indian Ocean Dipole. Deep-Sea Res. II, 50, 2263–2284.

Firing, Y.L., and M.A. Merrifield, 2004: Extreme sea level events at Hawaii: the influence of mesoscale eddies. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(24), L24306, doi:10.1029/2004GL021539.

Folland, C.K., et al., 2001: Observed climate variability and change. In: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Houghton, J.T., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, pp. 99–181.

Freeland, H., et al., 1997: Evidence of change in the winter mixed layer in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. I, 44(12), 2117–2129.

Fu, L.L., and A. Cazenave, 2001: Satellite Altimetry and Earth Sciences: A Handbook of Techniques and Applications. International Geophysics Series Vol. 69, Academic Press, San Diego, 457 pp.

Fukasawa, M., et al., 2004: Bottom water warming in the North Pacific Ocean. Nature, 427(6977), 825–827.

Gamo, T., et al., 1986: Spatial and temporal variations of water characteristics in the Japan Sea bottom layer. J. Mar. Res., 44(4), 781–793.

Ganachaud, A., and C. Wunsch, 2003: Large-scale ocean heat and freshwater transports during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. J. Clim., 16(4), 696–705.

Garcia, H.E., et al., 2005: On the variability of dissolved oxygen and apparent oxygen utilization content for the upper world ocean: 1955 to 1998. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L09604, doi:10.1029/GL022286.

Gasparini, G.P., et al., 2005: The effect of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient on the hydrographic characteristics in the Strait of Sicily and in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Deep-Sea Res. I, 52(6), 915–935.

Gehrels, W.R., et al., 2004: Late Holocene sea-level changes and isostatic crustal movements in Atlantic Canada. Quat. Int., 120, 79–89.

Gertman, I., N. Pinardi, Y. Popov, and A. Hecht, 2006: Aegean sea water masses during the early stages of the eastern Mediterranean climatic transient (1988-1990). J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36(9), 1841–1859.

Gille, S.T., 2002: Warming of the Southern Ocean since the 1950s. Science, 295(5558), 1275–1277.

Gille, S.T., 2004: How nonlinearities in the equation of state of seawater can confound estimates of steric sea level change. J. Geophys. Res., 109(3), C03005, doi:10.1029/2003JC002012.

Gonzalez-Dávila, M., et al., 2003: Seasonal and interannual variability of sea-surface carbon dioxide species at the European Station for Time Series in the Ocean at the Canary Islands (ESTOC) between 1996 and 2000. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 17(3), 1076, doi:10.1029/2002GB001993.

González-Pola, C., A. Lavin, and M. Vargas-Yanez, 2005: Intense warming and salinity modification of intermediate water masses in the southeastern corner of the Bay of Biscay for the period 1992-2003. J. Geophys. Res., 110, C05020, doi:10.1029/2004JC002367.

Gornitz, V., 2001: Impoundment, groundwater mining, and other hydrologic transformations: Impacts on global sea level rise. In: Sea Level Rise: History and Consequences [Douglas, B.C., M.S. Kearney, and S.P. Leatherman (eds.)]. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 97–119.

Gregg, W.W., et al., 2003: Ocean primary production and climate: Global decadal changes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(15), 1809, doi:10.1029/2003GL016889.

Gregory, J.M., et al., 2001: Comparison of results from several AOGCMs for global and regional sea-level changes 1900-2100. Clim. Dyn., 18, 225–240.

Gregory, J.M., et al., 2004: Simulated and observed decadal variability in ocean heat content. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L15312, doi:10.1029/2004/GL020258.

Gregory, J.M., et al., 2005: A model intercomparison of changes in the Atlantic thermohaline circulation in response to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L12703, doi:10.1029/2005GL023209.

Grist, J.P., and S.A. Josey, 2003: Inverse analysis adjustment of the SOC air-sea flux climatology using ocean heat transport constraints. J. Clim., 16(20), 3274–3295.

Gruber, N., J.L. Sarmiento, and T.F. Stocker, 1996: An improved method for detecting anthropogenic CO2 in the oceans. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 10(4), 809–837.

Gruber, N., C.D. Keeling, and N.R. Bates, 2002: Interannual variability in the North Atlantic Ocean carbon sink. Science, 298(5602), 2374–2378.

Guinehut, S., P.-Y. Le Traon, G. Larnicol, and S. Phillips, 2004: Combining ARGO and remote-sensing data to estimate the ocean three-dimensional temperature fields. J. Mar. Syst., 46, 85–98.

Gulev, S.K., T. Jung, and E. Ruprecht, 2006: Estimation of the sampling errors in global surface flux fields based on VOS data. J. Clim., 20(2), 279-301.

Häkkinen, S., 2002: Surface salinity variability in the northern North Atlantic during recent decades. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C12), doi:10.1029/2001JC000812.

Häkkinen, S., and P.B. Rhines, 2004: Decline of subpolar North Atlantic circulation during the 1990s. Science, 304, 555–559.

Hanawa, K., 1995: Southward penetration of the Oyashio water system and the wintertime condition of midlatitude westerlies over the North Pacific. Bull. Hokkaido Natl. Fish. Res. Inst., 59, 103–119.

Hanawa, K., and J. Kamada, 2001: Variability of core layer temperature (CLT) of the North Pacific subtropical mode water. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(11), 2229–2232.

Hanawa, K., and L.D. Talley, 2001: Mode waters. In: Ocean Circulation and Climate [Siedler, G., J.A. Church, and J. Gould (eds.)]. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 373–386.

Harrison, D.E., and M. Carson, 2006: Is the World Ocean warming? Upper ocean temperature trends, 1950-2000. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37 (2), 174–187.

Hátún, H., et al., 2005: Influence of the Atlantic Subpolar Gyre on the thermohaline circulation. Science, 309, 1841–1844.

Hazeleger, W., and S.S. Drijfhout, 1998: Mode water variability in a model of the subtropical gyre: Response to anomalous forcings. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 266–288.

Hazeleger, W., P. de Vries, and Y. Friocourt, 2003: Sources of the Equatorial Undercurrent in the Atlantic in a high-resolution ocean model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 677–693.

Hill, K.L., A.J. Weaver, H.J. Freeland, and A. Bychkov, 2003: Evidence of change in the Sea of Okhotsk: Implications for the North Pacific. Atmos.-Ocean, 41(1), 49–63.

Hilmer, M., and P. Lemke, 2000: On the decrease of Arctic sea ice volume. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27(22), 3751–3754.

Hirawake, T., T. Odate, and M. Fukuchi, 2005: Long-term variation of surface phytoplankton chlorophyll a in the Southern Ocean during 1965-2002. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32(5), L05606, doi:10.1029/2004GL021394.

Hogg, N.G., 2001: Quantification of the deep circulation. In: Ocean Circulation and Climate [Siedler, G., J.A. Church, and J. Gould (eds.)]. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 259–270.

Hogg, N.G., and W. Zenk, 1997: Long-period changes in the bottom water flowing through Vema Channel. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 15639–15646.

Holgate, S.J., and P.L. Woodworth, 2004: Evidence for enhanced coastal sea level rise during the 1990s. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L07305, doi:10.1029/2004GL019626.

Houghton, R.W., and M. Visbeck, 2002: Quasi-decadal salinity fluctuations in the Labrador Sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 687–701.

ICES, 2005: The Annual ICES Ocean Climate Status Summary 2004/2005. ICES Cooperative Research Report No.275, International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen, Denmark, 37 pp.

IOC, 2002: Manual on Sea-Level Measurement and Interpretation. Volume 3 - Reappraisals and Recommendations as of the Year 2000. Manuals and Guides No. 14, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, Paris, 47 pp.

IPCC, 2001: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Houghton, J.T., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 881 pp.

Ishii, M., M. Kimoto, K. Sakamoto, and S.I. Iwasaki, 2006: Steric sea level changes estimated from historical ocean subsurface temperature and salinity analyses. J. Oceanogr., 62(2), 155–170.

Jacobs, S.S., C.F. Giulivi, and P.A. Mele, 2002: Freshening of the Ross Sea during the late 20th century. Science, 297(5580), 386–389.

Johnson, G.C., and A.H. Orsi, 1997: Southwest Pacific Ocean water-mass changes between 1968/69 and 1990/91. J. Clim., 10(2), 306–316.

Johnson, G.C., and N. Gruber, 2007: Decadal water mass variations along 20°W in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Prog. Oceanogr., in press.

Johnson, G.C., D.L. Rudnick, and B.A. Taft, 1994: Bottom water variability in the Samoa Passage. J. Mar. Res., 52, 177–196.

Josey, S.A., 2003: Changes in the heat and freshwater forcing of the eastern Mediterranean and their influence on deep water formation. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C7), 3237, doi:10.1029/2003JC001778.

Josey, S.A., and R. Marsh, 2005: Surface freshwater flux variability and recent freshening of the North Atlantic in the eastern Subpolar Gyre. J. Geophys. Res., 110, C05008, doi:10.1029/2004JC002521.

Joyce, T.M., and P.E. Robbins, 1996: The long-term hydrographic record at Bermuda. J. Clim., 9, 3121–3131.

Joyce, T.M., and J. Dunworth-Baker, 2003: Long-term hydrographic variability in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(2), 1043, doi:10.1029/2002GL015225.

Joyce, T.M., R.S. Pickart, and R.C. Millard, 1999: Long-term hydrographic changes at 52 and 66 degrees W in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre & Caribbean. Deep-Sea Res. II, 46(1–2), 245–278.

Joyce, T.M., C. Deser, and M.A. Spall, 2000: The relation between decadal variability of subtropical mode water and the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Clim., 13(14), 2550–2569.

Karl, D.M., 1999: A sea of change: Biogeochemical variability in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Ecosystems, 2(3), 181–214.

Keeling, R.F., 2005: Comment on “The ocean sink for anthropogenic CO2”. Science, 308(5729), 1743c.

Keigwin, L.D., W.B. Curry, S.J. Lehman, and S. Johnsen, 1994: The role of the deep ocean in North Atlantic climate change between 70 and 130 kyr ago. Nature, 371, 323–326.

Keller, K., R.D. Slater, M. Bender, and R.M. Key, 2002: Possible biological or physical explanations for decadal scale trends in North Pacific nutrient concentrations and oxygen utilization. Deep-Sea Res. II, 49(1–3), 345–362.

Kieke, D., et al., 2006: Changes in the CFC inventories and formation rates of Upper Labrador Sea water. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 64–86.

Kim, K., et al., 2004: Water masses and decadal variability in the East Sea (Sea of Japan). Prog. Oceanogr., 61(2–4), 157–174.

Kim, K.R., et al., 2002: A sudden bottom-water formation during the severe winter 2000-2001: The case of the East/Japan Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(8), doi:10.1029/2001GL014498.

Klein, B., et al., 2000: Is the Adriatic returning to dominate the production of Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water? Geophys. Res. Lett., 27(20), 3377–3380.

Knight, J.R., et al., 2005: A signature of persistent natural thermohaline circulation cycles in observed climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L20708, doi:1029/2005GL024233.

Köhl, A., D. Stammer, and B. Cornuelle, 2006: Interannual to decadal changes in the ECCO global synthesis. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37(2), 313-337.

Krahmann, G., and F. Schott, 1998: Long-term increases in Western Mediterranean salinities and temperatures: anthropogenic and climatic sources. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(22), 4209–4212.

Kwon, Y.O., and S.C. Riser, 2004: North Atlantic Subtropical Mode Water: A history of ocean-atmosphere interaction 1961-2000. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(19), L19307, doi:10.1029/2004GL021116.

Kwon, Y.O., K. Kim, Y.G. Kim, and K.R. Kim, 2004: Diagnosing long-term trends of the water mass properties in the East Sea (Sea of Japan). Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(20), L20306, doi:10.1029/2004GL020881.

Lambeck, K., 2002: Sea-level change from mid-Holocene to recent time: An Australian example with global implications. In: Ice Sheets, Sea Level and the Dynamic Earth [Mitrovica, J.X., and B. L.A. Vermeersen (eds.)]. Geodynamics Series Vol. 29, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, doi:10.1029/029GD03. 33–50.

Lambeck, K., C. Smither, and M. Ekman, 1998: Tests of glacial rebound models for Fennoscandinavia based on instrumental sea- and lake-level records. Geophys. J. Int., 135, 375–387.

Lambeck, K., et al., 2004: Sea level in Roman time in the Central Mediterranean and implications for recent change. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 224, 563–575.

Latif, M., et al., 2006: Is the thermohaline circulation changing? J. Clim., 19, 4631–4637.

Lazar, A., et al., 2002: Seasonality of the ventilation of the tropical Atlantic thermocline in an ocean general circulation mode. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C8), doi:10.1029/2000JC000667.

Lazier, J.R.N., 1995: The salinity decrease in the Labrador Sea over the past thirty years. In: Natural Climate Variability on Decade-to-Century Time Scales [Martinson, D.G., et al. (eds.)]. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, pp. 295–304.

Lazier, J.R.N., et al., 2002: Convection and restratification in the Labrador Sea, 1990-2000. Deep-Sea Res. I, 49(10), 1819–1835.

Le Quéré, C., et al., 2003: Two decades of ocean CO2 sink and variability. Tellus, B55(2), 649–656.

Lee, T., 2004: Decadal weakening of the shallow overturning circulation of the South Indian Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18305, doi:10.1029/2004GL020884.

Lefèvre, N., et al., 2004: A decrease in the sink for atmospheric CO2 in the North Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(7), L07306, doi:10.1029/2003GL018957.

Leuliette, E.W., R.S. Nerem, and G.T. Mitchum, 2004: Calibration of TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason altimeter data to construct a continuous record of mean sea level change. Mar. Geodesy, 27(1–2), 79–94.

Levitus, S., 1989: Interpentadal variability of salinity in the upper 150m of the North-Atlantic Ocean, 1970-1974 versus 1955-1959. J. Geophys. Res., 94(C7), 9679–9685.

Levitus, S., J.I. Antonov, and T.P. Boyer, 2005a: Warming of the World Ocean, 1955-2003. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L02604, doi:10.1029/2004GL021592.

Levitus, S., J. Antonov, T.P. Boyer, and C. Stephens, 2000: Warming of the World Ocean. Science, 287, 2225–2229.

Levitus, S., et al., 2005b: Building Ocean Profile-Plankton Databases for Climate and Ecosystem System Research. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 117, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 29 pp.

Levitus, S., et al., 2005c: EOF analysis of upper ocean heat content, 1956-2003. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L18607, doi:10.1029/2005GL023606.

Li, M., P.G. Myers, and H. Freeland, 2005: An examination of historical mixed layer depths along Line-P in the Gulf of Alaska. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L05613, doi:10.1029/2004GL021911.

Li, Y.-H., and T.-H. Peng, 2002: Latitudinal change of remineralization ratios in the oceans and its implication for nutrient cycles. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16(4), 1130, doi:10.1029/2001GB001828.

Locarnini, R.A., et al., 2002: World ocean database 2001. In: NOAA Atlas NESDIS 45. Vol. 4: Temporal Distribution of Temperature, Salinity and Oxygen Profiles [Levitus, S. (ed.)]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 332 pp, CD-ROMs.

Lombard, A., et al., 2005: Thermosteric sea level rise for the past 50 years; comparison with tide gauges and inference on water mass contribution. Global Planet. Change, 48, 303–312.

Lombard, A., et al., 2006: Perspectives on present-day sea level change: a tribute to Christian le Provost. Ocean Dyn., 56(5-6), doi:10.1007/s10236-005-0046-x.

Lowe, J.A., and J.M. Gregory, 2006: Understanding projections of sea level rise in a Hadley Centre coupled climate model. J. Geophys. Res., 111, C11014, doi:10.1029/2005JC003421.

Luterbacher, J., et al., 2004: European seasonal and annual temperature variability, trends, and extremes since 1500. Science, 303(5663), 1499–1503.

Lyman, J.M., J.K. Willis, and G.C. Johnson, 2006: Recent cooling of the upper ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L18604, doi:10.1029/2006GL027033.

Macrander, A., et al., 2005: Interannual changes in the overflow from the Nordic Seas into the Atlantic Ocean through Denmark Strait. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L06606, doi:10.1029/2004GL021463.

Manca, B.B., V. Kovacevic, M. Gacic, and D. Viezzoli, 2002: Dense water formation in the Southern Adriatic Sea and spreading into the Ionian Sea in the period 1997-1999. J. Mar. Syst., 33, 133–154.

Mariotti, A., et al., 2002: The hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean region and implications for the water budget of the Mediterranean Sea. J. Clim., 15(13), 1674.

Marsh, R., 2000: Recent variability of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation inferred from surface heat and freshwater fluxes. J. Clim., 13(18), 3239–3260.

Matsumoto, K., and N. Gruber, 2005: How accurate is the estimation of anthropogenic carbon in the ocean? An evaluation of the delta C* method. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19, GB3014, doi:10.1029/2004GB002397.

McDonagh, E.L., et al., 2005: Decadal changes in the south Indian Ocean thermocline. J. Clim., 18, 1575–1590.

McLaughlin, F.A., E.C. Carmack, R.W. Macdonald, and J.K.B. Bishop, 1996: Physical and geochemical properties across the Atlantic Pacific water mass front in the southern Canadian Basin. J. Geophys. Res., 101(C1), 1183–1197.

McNeil, B.I., et al., 2003: Anthropogenic CO2 uptake by the ocean based on the global chlorofluorocarbon data set. Science, 299(5604), 235–239.

McPhaden, M.J., and D.X. Zhang, 2002: Slowdown of the meridional overturning circulation in the upper Pacific Ocean. Nature, 415(6872), 603–608.

McPhaden, M.J., and D.X. Zhang, 2004: Pacific Ocean circulation rebounds. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(18), L18301, doi:10.1029/2004GL020727.

Mecking, S., M.J. Warner, and J.L. Bullister, 2006: Temporal changes in pCFC-12 ages and AOU along two hydrographic sections in the eastern subtropical North Pacific. Deep-Sea Res., 53(1), 169–187.

Meredith, M.P., and J.C. King, 2005: Rapid climate change in the ocean west of the Antarctic Peninsula during the second half of the 20th century. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L19604, doi:1029/2005GL024042.

Meyers, G., 1996: Variation of the Indonesian throughflow and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 12255–12263.

Miller, L., and B.C. Douglas, 2004: Mass and volume contributions to 20th century global sea level rise. Nature, 428, 406–409.

Millot, C., J.-L. Fuda, J. Candela, and Y. Tber, 2006: Large warming and salinification of the Mediterranean outflow due to changes in its composition. Deep-Sea Res. I, 53, 656–666.

Milly, P.C.D., and A.B. Shmakin, 2002: Global modeling of land water and energy balances: 1. The land dynamics (LaD) model. J. Hydrometeorol., 3, 283–299.

Milly, P.C.D., A. Cazenave, and M.C. Gennero, 2003: Contribution of climate-driven change in continental water storage to recent sea-level rise. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 100(213), 13158–13161.

Errata Minami, H., Y. Kano, and K. Ogawa, 1998: Long-term variations of potential temperature and dissolved oxygen of the Japan Sea Water. J. Oceanogr., 55, 197–205.

Mitchell, T.P., and J.M. Wallace, 1992: The annual cycle in equatorial convection and sea-surface temperature. J. Clim., 5(10), 1140–1156.

Mitchell, W., J. Chittleborough, B. Ronai, and G.W. Lennon, 2001: Sea level rise in Australia and the Pacific. In: Pacific Islands Conference on Climate Change, Climate Variability and Sea Level Rise, National Tidal Facility Australia, Rarotonga, Cook Islands, 3-7 April 2000. Flinders Press, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 47–57.

Mitchum, G.T., 1994: Comparison of Topex sea surface heights and tide gauge sea levels. J. Geophys. Res., 99(C12), 24541–24554.

Mitchum, G.T., 2000: An improved calibration of satellite altimetric heights using tide gauge sea levels with adjustment for land motion. Mar. Geodesy, 23, 145–166.

Mitrovica, J.X., M. Tamisiea, J.L. Davis, and G.A. Milne, 2001: Recent mass balance of polar ice sheets inferred from patterns of global sea-level change. Nature, 409, 1026–1029.

Mitrovica, J.X., et al., 2006: Reanalysis of ancient eclipses, astronomic and geodetic data: a possible route to resolving the enigma of global sea level rise. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 243, 390–399.

Molinari, R.L., 2004: Annual and decadal variability in the western subtropical North Atlantic: signal characteristics and sampling methodologies. Prog. Oceanogr., 62(1), 33–66.

Morison, J., M. Steele, and R. Andersen, 1998: Hydrography of the upper Arctic Ocean measured from the nuclear submarine USS Pargo. Deep-Sea Res. I, 45(1), 15–38.

Munk, W., 2003: Ocean freshening, sea level rising. Science, 300, 2041–2043.

Murray, R.J., N.L. Bindoff, and C.J.C. Reason, 2007: Modelling decadal changes on the Indian Ocean Section I5 at 32°S. J. Clim., in press.

Nerem, R.S., and G.T. Mitchum, 2001: Observations of sea level change from satellite altimetry. In: Sea Level Rise: History and Consequences [Douglas, B.C., M.S. Kearney, and S.P. Leatherman (eds.)]. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 121–163.

Nerem, R.S., et al., 1999: Variations in global mean sea level associated with the 1997-1998 ENSO event: Implications for measuring long term sea level change. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 3005–3008.

Ngo-Duc, T., et al., 2005: Effects of land water storage on the global mean sea level over the last half century. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L09704, doi:10.1029/2005GL022719.

Ono, T., et al., 2001: Temporal increases of phosphate and apparent oxygen utilization in the subsurface waters of western subarctic Pacific from 1968 to 1998. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(17), 3285–3288.

Orr, J.C., et al., 2005: 21st century decline in ocean carbonate and high latitude aragonitic organisms. Nature, 437, 681–686.

Orsi, A.H., W.M. Smethie, and J.L. Bullister, 2002: On the total input of Antarctic waters to the deep ocean: A preliminary estimate from chlorofluorocarbon measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C8), 3122, doi:10.1029/2001JC000976.

Østerhus, S., W.R. Turrell, S. Jónsson, and B. Hansen, 2005: Measured volume, heat, and salt fluxes from the Atlantic to the Arctic Mediterranean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L07603, doi:10.1029/2004GL022188.

Pahlow, M., and U. Riebesell, 2000: Temporal trends in deep ocean Redfield ratios. Science, 287(5454), 831–833.

Palmer, M.H., H.L. Bryden, J.L. Hirschi, and J. Marotzke, 2004: Observed changes in the South Indian Ocean gyre circulation, 1987-2002. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(15), L15303, doi:15310.11029/12004GL020506.

Parrish, R.H., F.B. Schwing, and R. Mendelssohn, 2000: Midlatitude wind stress: the energy source for climatic regimes in the North Pacific Ocean. Fish. Oceanogr., 9, 224–238.

Peltier, W.R., 2001: Global glacial isostatic adjustment and modern instrumental records of relative sea level history. In: Sea Level Rise: History and Consequences [Douglas, B.C., M.S. Kearney, and S.P. Leatherman (eds.)]. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 65–95.

Peltier, W.R., 2004: Global glacial isostasy and the surface of the ice-age earth: the ICE-5G (VM2) model and GRACE. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 32, 111–149.

Penduff, T., B. Barnier, W.K. Dewar, and J.J. O’Brien, 2004: Dynamical response of the oceanic eddy field to the North Atlantic Oscillation: A model-data comparison. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 2615–2629.

Peng, T.-H., R. Wanninkhof, and R.A. Feely, 2003: Increase of anthropogenic CO2 in the Pacific Ocean over the last two decades. Deep-Sea Res. II, 50, 3065–3082.

Peng, T.-H., et al., 1998: Quantification of decadal anthropogenic CO2 uptake in the ocean based on dissolved inorganic carbon measurements. Nature, 396(6711), 560–563.

Plag, H.-P., 2006: Recent relative sea level trends: an attempt to quantify the forcing factors. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A, 364(1841), 821–844.

Polyakov, I.V., et al., 2004: Variability of the intermediate Atlantic water of the Arctic Ocean over the last 100 years. J. Clim., 17(23), 4485–4497.

Polyakov, I.V., et al., 2005: One more step toward a warmer Arctic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L17605, doi:10.1029/2005GL023740.

Ponte, R.M., 2006: Low frequency sea level variability and the inverted barometer effect. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 23(4), 619–629.

Potter, R.A., and M.S. Lozier, 2004: On the warming and salinification of the Mediterranean outflow waters in the North Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(1), L01202, doi:10.1029/2003GL018161.

Prentice, I.C., et al., 2001: The carbon cycle and atmospheric carbon dioxide. In: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Houghton, J.T., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 183–237.

Proshutinsky, A.Y., and M.A. Johnson, 1997: Two circulation regimes of the wind-driven Arctic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 102(C6), 12493–12514.

Proshutinsky, A., et al., 2004: Secular sea level change in the Russian sector of the Arctic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 109(C3), C03042, doi:10.1029/2003JC002007.

Qian, H., Y. Yin, and Y. Ni, 2003: Tropical Indian Ocean subsurface dipole mode and diagnostic analysis of dipole event in 1997-1998. J. Appl. Meteorol. Sci., 14, 129–139 (in Chinese).

Quadfasel, D., A. Sy, D. Wells, and A. Tunik, 1991: Warming in the Arctic. Nature, 350(6317), 385.

Raven, J., et al., 2005: Ocean Acidification due to Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. The Royal Society, London, 59 pp.

Reverdin, G., D. Cayan, and Y. Kushnir, 1997: Decadal variability of hydrography in the upper northern North Atlantic in 1948-1990. J. Geophys. Res., 102(C4), 8505–8531.

Rigor, I.G., J.M. Wallace, and R.L. Colony, 2002: Response of sea ice to the Arctic Oscillation. J. Clim., 15, 2648–2663.

Rixen, M., et al., 2005: The Western Mediterranean Deep Water: A new proxy for global climate change. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L12608, doi:10.1029/2005GL022702.

Robertson, R., M. Visbeck, A.L. Gordon, and E. Fahrbach, 2002: Long-term temperature trends in the deep waters of the Weddell Sea. Deep-Sea Res. II, 49(21), 4791–4806.

Roemmich, et al., 2007: Decadal spin-up of the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 162-173.

Roether, W., et al., 1996: Recent changes in eastern Mediterranean deep waters. Science, 271(5247), 333–335.

Rohling, E.J., and H.L. Bryden, 1992: Man-induced salinity and temperature increases in western Mediterranean deep-water. J. Geophys. Res., 97(C7), 11191–11198.

Rupolo, V., S. Marullo, and D. Iudicone, 2003: Eastern Mediterranean transient studied with Lagrangian diagnostics applied to a Mediterranean OGCM forced by satellite SST and ECMWF wind stress for the years 1988-1993. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C9), 8121.

Sabine, C.L., R.M. Key, R.A. Feely, and D. Greeley, 2002: Inorganic carbon in the Indian Ocean: Distribution and dissolution processes. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16(4), 1067, doi:10.1029/2002GB001869.

Sabine, C.L., R.A. Feely, Y.W. Watanabe, and M. Lamb, 2004a: Temporal evolution of the North Pacific CO2 uptake rate. J. Oceanogr., 60(1), 5–15.

Sabine, C.L., et al., 1999: Anthropogenic CO2 inventory of the Indian Ocean. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 13, 179–198.

Sabine, C.L., et al., 2004b: The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2. Science, 305(5682), 367–371.

Sahagian, D.L., 2000: Global physical effects of anthropogenic hydrological alterations: sea level and water redistribution. Global Planet. Change, 25, 39–48.

Sahagian, D.L., F.W. Schwartz, and D.K. Jacobs, 1994: Direct anthropogenic contributions to sea level rise in the twentieth century. Nature, 367, 54–56.

Sarma, V.V.S.S., T. Ono, and T. Saino, 2002: Increase of total alkalinity due to shoaling of aragonite saturation horizon in the Pacific and Indian Oceans: Influence of anthropogenic carbon inputs. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(20), 1971, doi:10.1029/2002GL015135.

Sarmiento, J.L., C. Le Quéré, and S.W. Pacala, 1995: Limiting future atmospheric carbon dioxide. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 9(1), 121–137.

Schauer, U., E. Fahrbach, and S. Østerhus, 2004: Arctic warming through the Fram Strait - Oceanic heat transport from three years of measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C06026, doi:10.1029/2003JC001823.

Schneider, N., and B.D. Cornuelle, 2005: The forcing of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. J. Clim., 18(21), 4355–4373.

Schoenefeldt, R., and F. Schott, 2006: Decadal variability of the Indian Ocean cross-equatorial exchange in SODA. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L08602, doi:10.1029/2006GL025891.

Schott, F.A., et al., 2004: Circulation and deep-water export at the western exit of the subpolar North Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 817–843.

Seager, R., et al., 2001: Wind-driven shifts in the latitude of the Kuroshio-Oyashio Extension and generation of SST anomalies on decadal timescales. J. Clim., 14(22), 4249–4265.

Sekine, Y., 1988: Anomalous southward intrusion of the Oyashio east of Japan.1. Influence of the seasonal and interannual variations in the wind stress over the North Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 93(C3), 2247–2255.

Sekine, Y., 1999: On variations in the subarctic circulation in the North Pacific. Prog. Oceanogr., 43(2–4), 193–203.

Senjyu, T., et al., 2002: Renewal of the bottom water after the winter 2000-2001 may spin-up the thermohaline circulation in the Japan Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(7), 1149, doi:10.1029/2001GL014093.

Sivan, D., et al., 2004: Ancient coastal wells of Caesarea Maritima, Israel, an indicator for sea level changes during the last 2000 years. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 222, 315–330.

Smith, T.M., and R.W. Reynolds, 2003: Extended reconstructions of global sea surface temperatures based on COADS Data (1854-1997). J. Clim., 16, 1495–1510.

Sprintall, J., et al., 2004: INSTANT: A new international array to measure the Indonesian Throughflow. EOS, 85(39), 369.

Stammer, D., et al., 2003: Volume, heat and freshwater transports of the global ocean circulation 1993-2000. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C1), doi:10.1029/2001JC001115.

Stark, S., R.A. Wood, and H.T. Banks, 2006: Re-evaluating the causes of observed changes in Indian Ocean water masses. J. Clim., 19(16), 4075–4086.

Steele, M., and T. Boyd, 1998: Retreat of the cold halocline layer in the Arctic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 103(C5), 10419–10435.

Stephens, C., S. Levitus, J. Antonov, and T. Boyer, 2001: On the Pacific Ocean regime shift. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3721–3724.

Stephens, C., et al., 2002: World ocean database 2001, Volume 3: Temporal distribution of conductivity-temperature-depth profiles. In: NOAA Atlas NESDIS 44 [Levitus, S. (ed.)]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp. 47, CD-ROMs.

Sterl, A., and W. Hazeleger, 2003: Coupled variability and air-sea interaction in the South Atlantic Ocean. J. Clim., 21, 559–571.

Stramma, L., J. Fischer, P. Brandt, and F. Schott, 2003: Circulation, variability and near-equatorial meridional flow in the central tropical Atlantic. In: Interhemispheric Water Exchange in the Atlantic Ocean [Goni, G., and P. Malanotte-Rizzoli (eds.)]. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 1–22.

Stramma, L., et al., 2004: Deep water changes at the western boundary of the subpolar North Atlantic during 1996 to 2001. Deep-Sea Res., 51A, 1033–1056.

Sy, A., et al., 1997: Surprisingly rapid spreading of newly formed intermediate waters across the North Atlantic Ocean. Nature, 386(6626), 675–679.

Takahashi, T., S.C. Sutherland, R.A. Feely, and R. Wanninkhof, 2006: Decadal change of the surface water pCO2 in the North Pacific: A synthesis of 35 years of observations. J. Geophys. Res., 111, C07S05, doi:10.1029/2005JC003074.

Takahashi, T., et al., 2002: Global sea-air CO2 flux based on climatological surface ocean pCO2, and seasonal biological and temperature effects. Deep-Sea Res. II, 49(9–10), 1601–1622.

Talley, L.D., 1996: North Atlantic circulation and variability, reviewed for the CNLS conference. Physica D, 98(2–4), 625–646.

Talley, L.D., and M.S. McCartney, 1982: Distribution and circulation of Labrador Sea-water. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 12(11), 1189–1205.

Talley, L.D., J.L. Reid, and P.E. Robbins, 2003a: Data-based meridional overturning streamfunctions for the global ocean. J. Clim., 16, 3213–3226.

Talley, L.D., et al., 2003b: Deep convection and brine rejection in the Japan Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(4), 1159, doi:10.1029/2002GL0165451.

Trenberth, K.E., and J.M. Caron, 2001: Estimates of meridional atmosphere and ocean heat transports. J. Clim., 14(16), 3433–3443.

Trenberth, K.E., J.M. Caron, and D.P. Stepaniak, 2001: The atmospheric energy budget and implications for surface fluxes and ocean heat transports. Clim. Dyn., 17, 259–276.

Tsimplis, M.N., and M. Rixen, 2002: Sea level in the Mediterranean Sea: The contribution of temperature and salinity changes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(23), 2136, doi:10.1029/2002GL015870.

Tsimplis, M.N., A.G.P. Shaw, R.A. Flather, and D.K. Woolf, 2006: The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the sea level around the northern European coasts reconsidered: the thermosteric effects. Phil. Trans. R. Soc.London A, 364(1841), 845–856, doi:10.1098/rsta.2006.1740.

Vargas-Yáñez, M., et al., 2004: Temperature and salinity increase in the eastern North Atlantic along the 24.5°N in the last ten years. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L06210, doi:10.1029/2003GL019308.

Vaughan, D., et al., 2003: Recent rapid regional climate warming on the Antarctic Peninsula. Clim. Change, 60, 243–274.

Vellinga, M., and R.A. Wood, 2002: Global climatic impacts of a collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Clim. Change, 54, 251–267.

Venegas, S.A., L.A. Mysak, and D.N. Straub, 1998: An interdecadal climate cycle in the South Atlantic and its links to other ocean basins. J. Geophys. Res., 103(C11), 24723–24736.

Vignudelli, S., G.P. Gasparini, M. Astraldi, and M.E. Schiano, 1999: A possible influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the circulation of the Western Mediterranean Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(5), 623–626.

Vranes, K., A.L. Gordon, and A. Ffield, 2002: The heat transport of the Indonesian Throughflow and implications for the Indian Ocean heat budget. Deep-Sea Res. I, 49, 1391–1410.

Wadhams, P., and W. Munk, 2004: Ocean freshening, sea level rising, sea ice melting. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(11), L11311, doi:10.1029/2004GL020039.

Wakelin, S.L., P.L. Woodworth, R.A. Flather, and J.A. Williams, 2003: Sea-level dependence on the NAO over the NW European continental shelf. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(7), 1403, doi:10.1029/2003GL017041.

Watanabe, Y.W., H. Ishida, T. Nakano, and N. Nagai, 2005: Spatiotemporal decreases of nutrients and chlorophyll-a in the surface mixed layer of the western North Pacific from 1971 to 2000. J. Oceanogr., 61, 1011–1016.

Watanabe, Y.W., et al., 2001: Probability of a reduction in the formation rate of the subsurface water in the North Pacific during the 1980s and 1990s. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(17), 3289–3292.

White, N.J., J.A. Church, and J.M. Gregory, 2005: Coastal and global averaged sea-level rise for 1950 to 2000. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32(1), L01601, doi:10.1029/2004GL021391.

Whitworth, T., 2002: Two modes of bottom water in the Australian-Antarctic Basin. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(5), 1973, doi:10.1029/2001GL014282.

Wijffels, S., and G.A. Meyers, 2004: An intersection of oceanic wave guides: Variability in the Indonesian Throughflow region. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 1232–1253.

Willey, D.A., et al., 2004: Global oceanic chlorofluorocarbon inventory. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L01303, doi:10.1029/2003GL018816.

Willis, J.K., D. Roemmich, and B. Cornuelle, 2004: Interannual variability in upper-ocean heat content, temperature and thermosteric expansion on global scales. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C12036, doi:10.1029/2003JC002260.

Wong, A.P.S., N.L. Bindoff, and J.A. Church, 1999: Large-scale freshening of intermediate waters in the Pacific and Indian oceans. Nature, 400(6743), 440–443.

Wong, A.P.S., N.L. Bindoff, and J.A. Church, 2001: Freshwater and heat changes in the North and South Pacific Oceans between the 1960s and 1985-94. J. Clim., 14(7), 1613–1633.

Woodworth, P.L., 1990: A search for accelerations in records of European mean sea level. Int. J. Climatol., 10, 129–143.

Woodworth, P.L., and D.L. Blackman, 2002: Changes in extreme high waters at Liverpool since 1768. Int. J. Climatol., 22, 697–714.

Woodworth, P.L., and R. Player, 2003: The Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level: An update to the 21st century. J. Coastal Res., 19, 287–295.

Woodworth, P.L., and D.L. Blackman, 2004: Evidence for systematic changes in extreme high waters since the mid-1970s. J. Clim., 17, 1190–1197.

Woodworth, P.L., M.N. Tsimplis, R.A. Flather, and I. Shennan, 1999: A review of the trends observed in British Isles mean sea level data measured by tide gauges. Geophys. J. Int., 136, 651–670.

Woolf, D., A. Shaw, and M.N. Tsimplis, 2003: The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on sea level variability in the North Atlantic Region. Global Atmos. Ocean System, 9(4), 145–167.

Xie, S.P., H. Annamalai, F.A. Schott, and J.P. McCreary, 2002: Structure and mechanisms of South Indian Ocean climate variability. J. Clim., 15(8), 864–878.

Yamagata, T., et al., 2004: Coupled ocean-atmosphere variability in the tropical Indian Ocean. In: Earth Climate: The Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction [Wang, C., S.-P. Xie, and J.A. Carton (eds.)]. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 189–212.

Yashayaev, I., J.R.N. Lazier, and R.A. Clarke, 2003: Temperature and salinity in the central Labrador Sea. ICES Marine Symposia Series, 219, 32–39.

Yasuda, I., T. Tozuka, M. Noto, and S. Kouketsu, 2000: Heat balance and regime shifts of the mixed layer in the Kuroshio Extension. Prog. Oceanogr., 47(2–4), 257–278.

Yasuda, I., et al., 2001: Hydrographic structure and transport of the Oyashio south of Hokkaido and the formation of North Pacific Intermediate Water. J. Geophys. Res., 106(C4), 6931–6942.

Zhang, K., B.C. Douglas, and S.P. Leatherman, 2000: Twentieth-century storm activity along the U.S. east coast. J. Clim., 13, 1748–1761.