6.6.3 Comparisons of Millennial Simulations with Palaeodata
A range of increasingly complex climate models has been used to simulate NH temperatures over the last 500 to 1,000 years using both natural and anthropogenic forcings (Figure 6.13). These models include an energy balance formulation (Crowley et al., 2003, Gerber et al., 2003), two- and three-dimensional reduced complexity models (Bertrand et al., 2002b; Bauer et al., 2003), and three fully coupled AOGCMs (Ammann et al., 2003; Von Storch et al., 2004; Tett et al., 2007).
Comparison and evaluation of the output from palaeoclimate simulations is complicated by their use of different historical forcings, as well as by the way indirect evidence of the history of various forcings is translated into geographically and seasonally specific radiative inputs within the models. Some factors, such as orbital variations of the Earth in relation to the Sun, can be calculated accurately (e.g., Berger, 1977; Bradley et al., 2003b) and directly implemented in terms of latitudinal and seasonal changes in incoming shortwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere. For the last 2 kyr, although this forcing is incorporated in most models, its impact on climate can be neglected compared to the other forcings (Bertrand et al., 2002b).
Figure 6.13. Radiative forcings and simulated temperatures during the last 1.1 kyr. Global mean radiative forcing (W m–2) used to drive climate model simulations due to (a) volcanic activity, (b) solar irradiance variations and (c) all other forcings (which vary between models, but always include greenhouse gases, and, except for those with dotted lines after 1900, tropospheric sulphate aerosols). (d) Annual mean NH temperature (°C) simulated under the range of forcings shown in (a) to (c), compared with the concentration of overlapping NH temperature reconstructions (shown by grey shading, modified from Figure 6.10c to account for the 1500 to 1899 reference period used here). All forcings and temperatures are expressed as anomalies from their 1500 to 1899 means and then smoothed with a Gaussian-weighted filter to remove fluctuations on time scales less than 30 years; smoothed values are obtained up to both ends of each record by extending the records with the mean of the adjacent existing values. The individual series are identified in Table 6.2.
Table 6.2. Climate model simulations shown in Figure 6.13.
|Series ||Modela ||Model type ||Forcingsb ||Reference |
|GSZ2003 ||ECHO-G ||GCM ||SV -G - - - - ||González-Rouco et al., 2003 |
|ORB2006 ||ECHO-G/MAGICC ||GCM adj. using EBMc ||SV -G -A -Z ||Osborn et al., 2006 |
|TBC..2006 ||HadCM3 ||GCM ||SVOG -ALZ ||Tett et al., 2007 |
|AJS..2006 ||NCAR CSM ||GCM ||SV -G -A -Z ||Mann et al., 2005b |
|BLC..2002 ||MoBiDiC ||EMIC ||SV -G -AL - ||Bertrand et al., 2002b |
|CBK..2003 ||- ||EBMc ||SV -G -A - - ||Crowley et al., 2003 |
|GRT..2005 ||ECBilt-CLIO ||EMIC ||SV -G -A - - ||Goosse et al., 2005b |
|GJB..2003 ||Bern CC ||EBMc ||SV -G -A -Z ||Gerber et al., 2003 |
|B..03-14C ||Climber2 ||EMIC (solar from 14C) ||SV - -C -L - ||Bauer et al., 2003 |
|B..03-10Be ||Climber2 ||EMIC (solar from 10Be) ||SV - -C -L - ||Bauer et al., 2003 |
|GBZ..2006 ||ECHO-G ||GCM ||SV -G - - - - ||González-Rouco et al., 2006 |
|SMC2006 ||ECHAM4/OPYC3 ||GCM ||SV -G -A -Z ||Stendel et al., 2006 |
Over recent millennia, the analysis of the gas bubbles in ice cores with high deposition rates provides good evidence of greenhouse gas changes at near-decadal resolution (Figure 6.4). Other factors, such as land use changes (Ramankutty and Foley, 1999) and the concentrations and distribution of tropospheric aerosols and ozone, are not as well known (Mickley et al., 2001). However, because of their magnitude, uncertainties in the history of solar irradiance and volcanic effects are more significant for the pre-industrial period.