IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
Climate Change 2007: Working Group I: The Physical Science Basis


Achard, F., et al., 2004: Improved estimates of net carbon emissions from land cover change in the tropics for the 1990s. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18, GB2008, doi:10.1029/2003GB002142.

ACIA, 2005: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1042 pp.

Ackerman, A.S., M.P. Kirkpatrick, D.E. Stevens, and O.B. Toon, 2004: The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect climate forcing. Nature, 432, 1014–1017.

Ackerman, A.S., et al., 2000: Reduction of tropical cloudiness by soot. Science, 288, 1042–1047.

Adams, J., J. Constable, A. Guenther, and P. Zimmerman, 2001: An estimate of natural volatile organic compound emissions from vegetation since the last glacial maximum. Chemosphere, 3, 73–91.

Adler, R.F., et al., 2003: The version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979-present). J. Hydrometeorol., 4, 1147–1167.

Ainsworth, E.A., and S.P. Long, 2005: What have we learned from 15 years of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)? A meta-analytic review of the responses of photosynthesis, canopy. New Phytol., 165(2), 351–371.

Albrecht, B., 1989: Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness. Science, 245, 1227–1230.

Allan, W., et al., 2005: Interannual variations of 13C in tropospheric methane: Implications for a possible atomic chlorine sink in the marine boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res., 110, doi:10.1029/2004JD005650.

Allen, D., K. Pickering, and M. Fox-Rabinovitz, 2004: Evaluation of pollutant outflow and CO sources during TRACE-P using model-calculated, aircraft-based, and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT)-derived CO concentrations. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D15S03, doi:10.1029/2003JD004250.

Anderson, T.L., et al., 2003: Climate forcing by aerosols - a hazy picture. Science, 300, 1103–1104.

Andreae, M.O., and P. Merlet, 2001: Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15, 955–966.

Andreae, M.O., C.D. Jones, and P.M. Cox, 2005: Strong present-day aerosol cooling implies a hot future. Nature, 435(7046), 1187–1190.

Andreae, M.O., et al., 2004: Smoking rain clouds over the Amazon. Science, 303, 1337–1342.

Angert, A., et al., 2004: CO2 seasonality indicates origins of post-Pinatubo sink. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(11), L11103, doi:10.1029/2004GL019760.

Angert, A., et al., 2005: Drier summers cancel out the CO2 uptake enhancement induced by warmer springs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 102, 10823–10827.

Archer, D., 2005: The fate of fossil fuel CO2 in geologic time. J. Geophys. Res., 110(C9), C09S05, doi:10.1029/2004JC002625.

Archer, D., and B. Buffett, 2005: Time-dependent response of the global ocean clathrate reservoir to climatic and anthropogenic forcing. Geochem. Geophys. Geosystems, 6, Q03002, doi:10.1029/2004GC000854.

Archer, D., H. Kheshgi, and E. Maier-Reimer, 1998: Dynamics of fossil fuel CO2 neutralization by marine CaCO3. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 12(2), 259–276.

Arellano, A.F. Jr., et al., 2004: Top-down estimates of global CO sources using MOPITT measurements. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L01104, doi:10.1029/ 2003GL018609.

Armstrong, R.A., et al., 2002: A new, mechanistic model for organic carbon fluxes in the ocean based on the quantitative association of POC with ballast minerals. Deep-Sea Res. II, 49, 219–236.

Arora, V.K., and G.J. Boer, 2003: A representation of variable root distribution in dynamic vegetation models. Earth Interactions, 7(6), 1–19.

Arora, V.K., and G.J. Boer, 2005: A parameterization of leaf phenology for the terrestrial ecosystem component of climate models. Global Change Biol., 11(1), 39–59.

Arora, V.K., and G.J. Boer, 2006: Simulating competition and coexistence between plant functional types in a dynamic vegetation model. Earth Interactions, 10, Paper 10, 30 pp., doi:10.1175/EI170.1.

Aumont, O., et al., 2001: Riverine-driven interhemispheric transport of carbon. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15, 393–405.

Austin, J., and R.J. Wilson, 2006: Ensemble simulations of the decline and recovery of stratospheric ozone. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D16314, doi:10.1029/2005JD006907.

Austin, J., et al., 2003: Uncertainties and assessments of chemistry-climate models of the stratosphere. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 1–27.

Avissar, R., and D. Werth, 2005: Global hydroclimatological teleconnections resulting from tropical deforestation. J. Hydrometeorol., 6(2), 134–145.

Avissar, R., P.L. Silva Dias, M.A.F. Silva Dias, and C. Nobre, 2002: The Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA): Insights and future research needs. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D20), 8034, doi:10.1029/2002JD002507.

Aw, J., and M.J. Kleeman, 2003: Evaluating the first-order effect of intraannual air pollution on urban air pollution. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4365, doi:10.1029/2002JD002688.

Ayers, G.P., 2005: “Air pollution and climate change: has air pollution suppressed rainfall over Australia?” Clean Air and Environmental Quality, 39, 51–57.

Bacastow, R.B., and C.D. Keeling, 1981: Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and the observed airborne fraction. In: Carbon Cycle Modelling [Bolin, B. (ed.)]. SCOPE 16. John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 103–112.

Bagnoud, N., A.J. Pitman, B.J. McAvaney, and N.J. Holbrook, 2005: The contribution of the land surface energy balance complexity to differences in means, variances and extremes using the AMIP-II methodology. Clim. Dyn., 25, 171–188. doi:10.1007/S00382-005-0004-9.

Baker, D.F., et al., 2006: TransCom 3 inversion intercomparison: impact of transport model errors on the interannual variability of regional CO2 fluxes, 1988-2003. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 20, GB1002, doi:1010.1029/2004GB002439.

Baker, M., and R.J. Charlson, 1990: Bistability of CCN concentrations and thermodynamics in the cloud-topped boundary layer. Nature, 345, 142–145.

Baker, T.R., et al., 2004: Increasing biomass in Amazonian forest plots. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 359, 353–365.

Baldocchi, D., et al., 2001: FLUXNET: A new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy flux densities. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 82, 2415–2434.

Baldwin, M.P., and T.J. Dunkerton, 1999: Downward propagation of the Arctic Oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 30937–30946.

Baldwin, M.P., and T.J. Dunkerton, 2001: Stratospheric harbingers of anomalous weather regimes. Science, 244, 581–584.

Balkanski, Y., et al., 2004: Global emissions of mineral aerosol: formulation and validation using satellite imagery. In: Emission of Atmospheric Trace Compounds [Granier, C., P. Artaxo, and C.E. Reeves (eds.)]. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 239–267.

Balzter H., et al., 2005: Impact of the Arctic Oscillation pattern on interannual forest fire variability in Central Siberia. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L14709, doi:10.1029/2005GL022526.

Barbosa, P.M., et al., 1999: An assessment of vegetation fire in Africa (1981–1991): Burned areas, burned biomass, and atmospheric emissions. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 13, 933–950.

Barford, C.C., et al., 2001: Factors controlling long and short term sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in a mid-latitude forest. Science, 294(5547), 1688–1691.

Barlage, M., and X. Zeng, 2004: Impact of observed vegetation root distribution on seasonal global simulations of land surface processes. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D09101, doi:10.1029/2003JD003847.

Battle, M., et al., 2000: Global carbon sinks and their variability inferred from atmospheric O2 and δ13C. Science, 287(5462), 2467–2470.

Beirle, S., et al., 2004: Estimate of nitrogen oxide emissions from shipping by satellite remote sensing. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18102, doi:10.1029/2004GL020312.

Bellamy, P.H., et al., 2005: Carbon losses from all soils across England and Wales 1978–2003. Nature, 437, 245248.

Benner R., et al., 1992: Bulk chemical characteristics of dissolved organic matter in the ocean. Science, 255, 1561–1564.

Bergamaschi, P., M. Braeunlich, T. Marik, and C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer. 2000: Measurements of the carbon and hydrogen isotopes of atmospheric methane at Izana, Tenerife: Seasonal cycles and synoptic-scale variations. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 14531–14546.

Berner, R.A., 1998: The carbon cycle and CO2 over Phanerozoic time: the role of land plants. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 353(1365), 75–81.

Bertram, T.H., et al., 2005: Satellite measurements of daily variations in soil NOx emissions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L24812, doi:10.1029/2005GL024640.

Betts, A.K., 2004: Understanding hydrometeorology using global models. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 85, 1673–1688.

Betts, A.K., 2006: Radiative scaling of the nocturnal boundary layer and the diurnal temperature range. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D07105, doi:10.1029/2005JD006560.

Betts, A.K., J. Ball, and J. McCaughey, 2001: Near-surface climate in the boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 33529–33541.

Betts, R., et al., 2004: The role of ecosystem-atmosphere interactions in simulated Amazonian precipitation decrease and forest dieback under global change warming. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 78(1–3), 157–175.

Bey, I., et al., 2001: Global modeling of tropospheric chemistry with assimilated meteorology: model description and evaluation. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D19), 23073–23096.

Bigg, E.K., C. Leck, and L. Tranvik, 2004: Particulates of the surface microlayer of open water in the central Arctic Ocean in summer. Mar. Chem., 91(1–4), 131–141.

Bodeker, G.E., H. Shiona, and H. Eskes, 2005: Indicators of Antarctic ozone depletion. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2603–2615.

Boersma, K.F., H.J. Eskes, E.W. Meijer, and H.M. Keider, 2005: Estimates of lightning NOx production from GOME satellite observations. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discussions, 5, 3047–3104.

Bogner, J.E., R.L. Sass, and B.P. Walter, 2000: Model comparisons of methane oxidation across a management gradient: Wetlands, rice production systems, and landfill. Global Biogeochem. Cycles., 14, 1021–1033.

Bolin, B., and E. Eriksson, 1959: Changes in the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere and sea due to fossil fuel combustion. In: The Atmosphere and Sea in Motion [Bolin, B. (ed.)]. Rossby Memorial Volume. Rockefeller Institute, New York, NY, pp. 130–142.

Bonan, G.B., 2001: Observational evidence for reduction of daily maximum temperature by croplands in the midwest United States. J. Clim., 14, 2430–2442.

Bonan, G.B., et al., 2003: A dynamic global vegetation model for use with climate models: concepts and description of simulated vegetation dynamics. Global Change Biol., 9, 1543–1566.

Bond, W.J., G.F. Midgley, and F.I. Woodward, 2003: The importance of low atmospheric CO2 and fire in promoting the spread of grasslands and savannas. Global Change Biol., 9, 973–982.

Bopp, L., et al., 2002: Climate-induced oceanic oxygen fluxes: Implications for the contemporary carbon budget. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16, doi:10.1029/2001GB001445.

Bopp, L., et al., 2004: Will marine dimethyl sulfide emissions amplify or alleviate global warming? A model study. Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci., 61(5), 826–835.

Bopp, L., et al., 2005: Response of diatoms distribution to global warming and potential implications – a global model study. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32(19), L19606, doi:10.1029/2005GL023653.

Borges, A.V., 2005: Do we have enough pieces of the jigsaw to integrate CO2 fluxes in the coastal ocean? Estuaries, 28, 3–27.

Bousquet, P., et al., 2000: Regional changes in carbon dioxide fluxes of land and oceans since 1980. Science, 290(5495), 1342–1346.

Bousquet, P., et al., 2005: Two decades of OH variability as inferred by an inversion of atmospheric transport and chemistry of methyl chloroform, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2635–2656.

Bouwman, A.F., L.J.M. Boumans, and N.H. Batjes, 2001: Global Estimates of Gaseous Emission of NH3, NO and N2O from Agricultural Land. Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome, 57 pp.

Bouwman, A.F., L.J.M. Boumans, and N.H. Batjes, 2002: Modeling global annual N2O and NO emissions from fertilized fields. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16(4), 1080, doi:10.1029/2001GB001812.

Boyd, P.W., et al., 2004: The decline and fate of an iron-induced subarctic phytoplankton bloom. Nature, 428, 549–553.

Boyle, E.D., 1988: The role of vertical chemical fractionation in controlling late quaternary atmospheric carbon dioxide. J. Geophys. Res., 93(C12), 15701–15714.

Brasseur, G.P, and E. Roeckner, 2005: Impact of improved air quality on the future evolution of climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L23704, doi:10.1029/2005GL023902.

Brasseur, G.P., et al., 1998: Past and future changes in global tropospheric ozone: impact on radiative forcing. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(20), 3807–3810.

Brasseur, G.P, et al., 2005: Impact of climate change on the future chemical composition of the global troposphere. J. Clim., 19, 3932–3951

Breshears, D.D., et al., 2005: Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 102(42), 15144–15148.

Broecker, W.S., 1991: Keeping global change honest. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 5, 191–195.

Broecker, W.S., and T. Takahashi, 1978: Neutralization of fossil fuel CO2 by marine calcium carbonate. In: The Fate of Fossil Fuel CO2 in the Ocean [Andersen, N.R., and A. Malahoff (eds.)]. Plenum Press, New York, NY, pp. 213–248.

Broecker, W.S., and T.-H. Peng, 1982: Tracers in the Sea. ELDIGIO Press, New York, NY, 689 pp.

Broecker, W.S., and T.-H. Peng, 1986: Carbon cycle: 1985 – glacial to interglacial changes in the operation of the global carbon cycle. Radiocarbon, 28, 309–327.

Broerse, A.T.C., et al., 2003: The cause of bright waters in the Bering Sea in winter. Continental Shelf Res., 23, 1579–1596.

Brook, E., et al., 2000: On the origin and timing of rapid changes in atmospheric methane during the last glacial period. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 14, 559–572.

Brovkin, V., et al., 2004: Role of land cover changes for atmospheric CO2 increase and climate change during the last 150 years. Global Change Biol., 10, 1253–1266, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00812.

Brown, S., and A.E. Lugo, 1982: The storage and production of organic-matter in tropical forests and their role in the global carbon-cycle. Biotropica, 14(3), 161–187.

Brown, T.J., B.L. Hall, and A.L. Westerling, 2004: The impact of twenty-first century climate change on wildland fire danger in the western United States: an applications perspective. Clim. Change, 62, 365–388.

Buddemeier, R.W., J.A. Kleypas, and R.B. Aronson, 2004: Coral Reefs and Global Climate Change. Pew Centre on Global Climate Change, Arlington, VA, 44 pp.

Buffett, B., and D. Archer, 2004: Global inventory of methane clathrate: sensitivity to changes in the deep ocean. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 227, 185–199.

Burkhardt, S., I. Zondervan, and U. Riebesell, 1999: Effect of CO2 concentration on C:N:P ratio in marine phytoplankton: a species comparison. Limnol. Oceanogr., 44(3), 683–690.

Burrows, W.H., et al., 2002: Growth and carbon stock change in eucalypt woodlands in northeast Australia: ecological and greenhouse sink implications. Global Change Biol., 8, 769–784.

Butchart, N., and A.A. Scaife, 2001: Removal of chlorofluorocarbons by increased mass exchange between the stratosphere and troposphere in a changing climate. Nature, 410, 799–802.

Butchart, N., et al., 2006: Simulations of anthropogenic change in the strength of the Brewer–Dobson circulation. Clim. Dyn., 27, doi:10.1007/s00382-006-0162-4.

Butler, T.M., I. Simmonds, and P.J. Rayner, 2004: Mass balance inverse modeling of methane in the 1990s using a chemistry transport model. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 2561–2580.

Cakmur, R.V., et al., 2006: Constraining the magnitude of the global dust cycle by minimizing the difference between a model and observations. J. Geophys. Res., 111, doi:10.1029/2005JD005791

Caldeira, K., and M.E. Wickett, 2003: Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature, 425(6956), 365–368.

Cao, M., K. Gregson, and S. Marshall, 1998: Global methane emission from wetlands and its sensitivity to climate change. Atmos. Environ., 32, 3291–3299.

Carpenter, L.J., 2003: Iodine in the marine boundary layer. Chem. Rev., 103, 4953–4962.

Chadwick, O.A., et al., 1999: Changing sources of nutrients during four million years of ecosystem development. Nature, 397(6719), 491.

Chagnon, F.J.F., R.L. Bras, and J. Wang, 2004: Climatic shift in patterns of shallow clouds over the Amazon. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(24), L24212, doi:10.1029/2004GL021188.

Chambers, J.Q., and S.E. Trumbore, 1999: An age-old problem. Trends Plant Sci., 4(10), 385–386.

Chambers, J.Q., and W.L. Silver, 2004: Some aspects of ecophysiological and biogeochemical responses of tropical forests to atmospheric change. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 359(1443), 463–476.

Chance, K., et al., 2000: Satellite observations of formaldehyde over North America from GOME. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 3461–3464.

Chapin, F.S. III, et al., 2005: Role of land-surface changes in arctic summer warming. Science, 310, 657–660.

Chapman, S.J., and M. Thurlow, 1996: The influence of climate on CO2 and CH4 emissions from organic soils. J. Agric. For. Meteorol., 79, 205–217.

Chappellaz, J.A., I.Y. Fung, and A.M. Thompson, 1993: The atmospheric CH4 increase since the last Glacial Maximum (1) Source estimates. Tellus, 45B, 228–241.

Chave, J., et al., 2003: Spatial and temporal variation of biomass in a tropical forest: results from a large census plot in Panama. J. Ecol., 91, 240–252.

Chen, C.-T.A., K.-K. Liu, and R. MacDonald, 2003: Continental margin exchanges. In: Ocean Biogeochemistry [Fasham, M.J.R. (ed.)]. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 53–97.

Chen, M., P. Xie, and J.E. Janowiak, 2002: Global land precipitation: a 50-yr monthly analysis based on gauge observations. J. Hydrometeorol., 3, 249–266.

Chen, Y., and J.E. Penner, 2005: Uncertainty analysis for estimates of the first indirect effect. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2935–2948.

Chen, Y-H., and R.G. Prinn, 2005: Atmospheric modeling of high- and low-frequency methane observations: Importance of interannually varying transport. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D10303, doi:10.1029/2004JD005542.

Chen, Y-H., and R.G. Prinn, 2006: Estimation of atmospheric methane emission between 1996-2001 using a 3-D global chemical transport model. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D10307, doi:10.1029/2005JD006058.

Christensen, T.R., A. Ekberg, L. Ström, and M. Mastepanov, 2003: Factors controlling large scale variations in methane emission from wetlands. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1414, doi:10.1029/2002GL016848.

Christensen, T.R., et al., 2004: Thawing sub-arctic permafrost: Effects on vegetation and methane emissions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, doi:10.1029/2003GL018680.

Chuang, P.Y., R.M. Duvall, M.M. Shafer, and J.J. Schauer, 2005: The origin of water soluble particulate iron in the Asian atmospheric outflow. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, doi:10.1029/2004GL021946.

Chung, S.H., and J.H. Seinfeld, 2005: Climate response of direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic black carbon. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D11102, doi:10.1029/2004JD005441.

Ciais, P., et al., 1995: Partitioning of ocean and land uptake of CO2 as inferred by δ13C measurements from the NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network. J. Geophys. Res., 100(D3), 5051–5070.

Ciais, P., et al., 2005a: The potential for rising CO2 to account for the observed uptake of carbon by tropical, temperate, and boreal forest biomes. In: The Carbon Balance of Forest Biomes [Griffiths, H., and P. G. Jarvis (eds.)]. Taylor and Francis, New York, pp. 109–150.

Ciais, P., et al., 2005b: Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003. Nature, 437(7058), 529–533.

Clair, T.A., J.M. Ehrman, and K. Higuchi, 1999: Changes in freshwater carbon exports from Canadian terrestrial basins to lakes and estuaries under 2xCO2 atmospheric scenario. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 13(4), 1091–1097.

Clark, D.A., 2002: Are tropical forests an important carbon sink? Reanalysis of the long-term plot data. Ecol. Appl., 12, 3–7.

Clark, D.A., 2004: Sources or sinks? The responses of tropical forests to current and future climate and atmospheric composition. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 359, 477–491.

Clark, D.B., C.M. Taylor, and A.J. Thorpe, 2004: Feedback between the land surface and rainfall at convective length scales. J. Hydrometeorol., 5(4), 625–639.

Coakley, J.A. Jr., and C.D. Walsh, 2002: Limits to the aerosol indirect radiative forcing derived from observations of ship tracks. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 668–680.

Cochrane, M.A., 2003: Fire science for rainforests. Nature, 421(6926), 913–919.

Cohan, D.S., et al., 2002: Impact of atmospheric aerosol light scattering and absorption on terrestrial net primary productivity. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16(4), 25–34, 1090, doi:10.1029/2001GB001441.

Cole, V., et al., 1996: Agricultural options for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. In: Climate Change 1995. Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses [Watson, R.T, M.C. Zinyowera, R.H. Moss, and D.J. Dokken (eds)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp 745–771.

Collier, J.C., and K.P. Bowman, 2004: Diurnal cycle of tropical precipitation in a general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D17105, doi:10.1029/2004JD004818.

Collins, W.J., D.S. Stevenson, C.E. Johnson, and R.G. Derwent, 1999: Role of convection in determining the budget of odd hydrogen in the upper troposphere. J. Geophys. Res., 104(D21), 26927–26942.

Collins, W.J., R.G. Derwent, C.E. Johnson, and D.S. Stevenson, 2002: The oxidation of organic compounds in the troposphere and their global warming potentials. Clim. Change, 52(4), 453–479.

Collins, W.J., et al., 2003: Effect of stratosphere-troposphere exchange on the future tropospheric ozone trend. J. Geophys.Res., 108(D12), 8528, doi:10.1029/2002JD002617.

Conrad, R., 1996: Soil microorganisms as controllers of atmospheric trace gases (H2, CO, CH4, OCS, N2O, and NO). Microbiol. Rev., 60, 609–640.

Conrad, R., and W. Seiler, 1981: Decomposition of atmospheric hydrogen by soil-microorganisms and soil enzymes. Soil Biol. Biochem., 13, 43–49.

Constable, J.V.H., A.B. Guenther, D.S. Schimel, and R.K. Monson, 1999: Modeling changes in VOC emission in response to climate change in the continental United States. Global Change Biol., 5, 791–806.

Cook, J., and E.J. Highwood, 2004: Climate response to tropospheric absorbing aerosols in an intermediate general circulation model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 175–191.

Cooke, W.F., V. Ramaswamy, and P. Kasibhatla, 2002: A general circulation model study of the global carbonaceous aerosol distribution. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4279, doi:10.1029/2001JD001274.

Cox, P.M., et al., 2000: Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model. Nature, 408(6809), doi:10.1038/35041539.

Cox, P.M., et al., 2004: Amazonian forest dieback under climate-carbon cycle projections for the 21st century. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 78, 137–156.

Cramer, W., et al., 2001: Global response of terrestrial ecosystem structure and function to CO2 and climate change: results from six dynamic global vegetation models. Global Change Biol., 7(4), 357–374.

Crucifix, M., R.A. Betts, and P.M. Cox, 2005: Vegetation and climate variability: a GCM modeling study. Clim. Dyn., 24, 457–467, doi:10.1007/S00382-004-0504-z.

Cui, Z.Q., K.S. Carslaw, Y. Yin, and S. Davies, 2006: A numerical study of aerosol effects on the dynamics and microphysics of a deep convective cloud in a continental environment. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D05201, doi:10.1029/2005JD005981.

Curtis, P.S., et al., 2002: Biometric and eddy-covariance based estimates of annual carbon storage in five eastern North American deciduous forests. Agric. For. Meteorol., 113, 3–19.

Cziczo, D.J., et al., 2004: Observations of organic species and atmospheric ice formation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, doi:10.1029/2004GL019822.

Da Rocha, H.R., et al., 2004: Seasonality of water and heat fluxes over a tropical forest in eastern Amazonia. Ecol. Appl., 14, S114–S126.

Dai, A., and K.E. Trenberth, 2002: Estimates of freshwater discharge from continents: latitudinal and seasonal variations. J. Hydrometeorol., 3, 660–687.

Dameris, M., et al., 2005: Long-term changes and variability in a transient simulation with a chemistry-climate model employing realistic forcing. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2121–2145.

Dameris, M., et al., 2006: Impact of solar cycle for onset of ozone recovery. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L03806, doi:10.1029/2005GL024741.

Dargaville, R.J., et al., 2000: Implications of interannual variability in atmospheric circulation on modeled CO2 concentrations and source estimates. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 14, 931–943.

De Leeuw, G., et al., 2001: Atmospheric input of nitrogen into the North Sea: ANICE project overview. Continental Shelf Res., 21(18–19), 2073–2094.

Decho, A.W., 1990: Microbial exopolymer secretions in ocean environments: their role(s) in food webs and marine processes. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev., 28, 73–153.

DeFries, R.S., et al., 2002: Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation and regrowth based on satellite observations for the 1980s and 1990s. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 99(22), 14256–14261.

Degens, E.T., S. Kempe, and A. Spitzy, 1984: Carbon dioxide: A biogeochemical portrait. In: The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry [Hutzinger, O. (ed.)]. Vol. 1, Part C, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 127–215.

Del Grosso, S.J., A.R. Mosier, W.J. Parton, and D.S. Ojima, 2005: DAYCENT model analysis of past and contemporary soil N2O and net greenhouse gas flux for major crops in the USA. Soil Tillage Res., 83(1), 9–24.

Del Grosso, S.J., et al., 2000: General CH4 oxidation model and comparison of CH4 oxidation in natural and managed systems. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 14, 999–1019.

DeLucia, E.H., D.J. Moore, and R.J. Norby, 2005: Contrasting responses of forest ecosystems to rising atmospheric CO2: implications for the global C cycle. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19, G3006, doi:10.1029/2004GB002346.

Dentener, F., et al., 1996: Role of mineral aerosol as a reactive surface in the global troposphere. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 22869–22889.

Dentener, F., et al., 2003a: Interannual variability and trend of CH4 lifetime as a measure for OH changes in the 19791993 time period. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D15), 4442, doi:10.1029/2002JD002916.

Dentener, F., et al., 2003b: Trends and inter-annual variability of methane emissions derived from 19791993 global CTM simulations. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 7388.

Dentener, F., et al., 2005: The impact of air pollutant and methane emission controls on tropospheric ozone and radiative forcing: CTM calculations for the period 1990–2030. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 1731–1755.

Dentener, F., et al., 2006: The global atmospheric environment for the next generation. Environ. Sci. Technol., 40(11), 3586–3594.

Derwent, R.G., W.J. Collins, C.E. Johnson, and D.S. Stevenson, 2001: Transient behaviour of tropospheric ozone precursors in a global 3-D CTM and their indirect greenhouse effects. Clim. Change, 49(4), 463487.

Desborough, C.E., 1999: Surface energy balance complexity in GCM land surface models. Clim. Dyn., 15, 389–403.

Dickens, G.R., 2001: Modeling the global carbon cycle with gas hydrate capacitor: Significance for the latest Paleocene thermal maximum. In: Natural Gas Hydrates: Occurrence, Distribution, and Detection [Paull, C.K., and W.P. Dillon (eds.)]. Geophysical Monographs Vol. 124, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 19–38.

Dickens, G.R., M.M. Castillo, and J.G.C. Walker, 1997: A blast of gas in the latest Paleocene: Simulating first-order effects of massive dissociation of oceanic methane hydrate. Geology, 25, 259–262.

Dickinson, R.E., G. Wang, X. Zeng, and Q.-C. Zeng, 2003: How does the partitioning of evapotranspiration and runoff between different processes affect the variability and predictability of soil moisture and precipitation? Adv. Atmos. Sci., 20(3), 475–478.

Dickinson, R.E., et al., 2006: The community land model and its climate statistics as a component of the community climate system model. J. Clim., 19, 2302–2324.

Diehl, K., and S. Wurzler, 2004: Heterogeneous drop freezing in the immersion mode: Model calculations considering soluble and insoluble particles in the drops. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 2063–2072.

Dirmeyer, P.A., 2001: An evaluation of the strength of land-atmosphere coupling. J. Hydrometeorol., 2(4), 329–344.

Dlugokencky, E.J., K.A. Masarie, P.M. Lang, and P.P. Tans, 1998: Continuing decline in the growth rate of the atmospheric methane burden. Nature, 393, 447–450.

Dlugokencky, E.J., et al., 2001: Measurements of an anomalous global methane increase during 1998. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 499–502.

Dlugokencky, E.J., et al., 2003: Atmospheric methane levels off: Temporary pause or a new steady state. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, doi:10.1029/2003GL018126.

D’Odorico, P., and A. Porporato, 2004: Preferential states in soil moisture and climate dynamics. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 101(24), 8848–8851.

Doherty, R.M., D.S. Stevenson, W.J. Collins, and M.G. Sanderson, 2005: Influence of convective transport on tropospheric ozone and its precursors in a chemistry-climate model. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 3747–3771.

Doney, S.C., et al., 2004: Evaluating global ocean carbon models: the importance of realistic physics. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18(3), GB3017, doi:10.1029/2003GB002150.

Douglass, A.R., M.R. Schoeberl, R.B. Rood, and S. Pawson, 2003: Evaluation of transport in the lower tropical stratosphere in a global chemistry and transport model. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D9), 4259, doi:10.1029/2002JD002696.

Duce, R.A., 1995: Sources, distributions and fluxes of mineral aerosols and their relationship to climate. In: Aerosol Forcing of Climate [Charlson, R.J. and J. Heintzenberg (eds.)]. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, New York, pp. 43–72.

Dukes, J.S., et al., 2005: Responses of grassland production to single and multiple global environmental changes. PLoS Biol., 3(10), 1829–1836.

Dunn, A.L, et al., 2007: A long-term record of carbon exchange in a boreal black spruce forest: means, responses to interannual variability, and decadal trends. Global Change Biol., 13, 577-590, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01221.x.

Dupre, B., et al., 2003: Rivers, chemical weathering and Earth’s climate. Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 335(16), 1141–1160.

Durieux, L., L.A.T. Machado, and H. Laurent, 2003: The impact of deforestation on cloud cover over the Amazon arc of deforestation. Remote Sens. Environ., 86(1), 132–140.

Dutay, J.C., et al., 2002: Evaluation of ocean model ventilation with CFC-11: comparison of 13 global ocean models. Ocean Modelling, 4(2), 89–102.

Easter, R.C., et al., 2004: MIRAGE: Model description and evaluation of aerosols and trace gases. J. Geophys. Res., 109, doi:10.1029/2004JD004571.

Edwards, D.P., et al., 2004: Observations of carbon monoxide and aerosols from the Terra satellite: Northern Hemisphere variability. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D24202, doi:10.1029/2004JD004727.

Eglinton, T.I., and D.J. Repeta, 2004, Organic matter in the contemporary ocean. In: Treatise on Geochemistry [Holland, H.D., and K.K. Turekian (eds.)]. Volume 6, The Oceans and Marine Geochemistry, Elsevier Pergamon, Amsterdam, pp. 145–180.

Ehhalt, D.H., 1999: Gas phase chemistry of the troposphere. In: Global Aspects of Atmospheric Chemistry [Baumgärtl, H., W. Grünbein, and F. Hensel (eds.)]. Dr. Dietrich Steinkopf Verlag, Darmstadt, Germany, pp. 21–110.

Ek, M.B., and A.A.M. Holtslag, 2004: Influence of soil moisture on boundary layer cloud development. J. Hydrometeorol., 5, 86–99.

Engel, A., et al., 2004: Polysaccharide aggregation as a potential sink of marine dissolved organic carbon. Nature, 428, 929–932.

Enting, I.G., and J.V. Mansbridge, 1991: Latitudinal distribution of sources and sinks of CO2 - Results of an inversion study. Tellus, 43B, 156–170.

Enting, I.G., C.M. Trudinger, and R.J. Francey, 1995: A synthesis inversion of the concentration and 13C of atmospheric CO2. Tellus, 47B, 35–52.

Etheridge, D.M., L.P. Steel, R.J. Francey, and R.L. Langenfelds, 1998: Atmospheric methane between 1000 A.D. and present: Evidence of anthropogenic emissions and climatic variability. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 15979–15993.

Etiope, G., 2004: GEM-Geologic Emission of Methane, the missing source in the atmospheric methane budget. Atmos. Environ., 38, 3099–3100.

Etiope, G., and R.W. Klusman, 2002: Geologic emissions of methane to the atmosphere. Chemosphere, 49, 777–789.

European Commission, 2003: Ozone-Climate Interactions. Air Pollution Research Report 81, EUR 20623, European Commission, Luxembourg, 143 pp.

Eyring, V., et al., 2005: A strategy for process-oriented validation of coupled chemistry-climate models. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 86, 1117–1133.

Falkowski, P., et al., 2000: The global carbon cycle: A test of our knowledge of Earth as a system. Science, 290(5490), 291–296.

Falloon, P., et al., 2006: RothCUK – a dynamic modelling system for estimating changes in soil C at 1km scale in the UK. Soil Use Management, 22, 274–288.

Fan, S., et al., 1998: A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models. Science, 282, 442–446.

Fang, J., et al., 2001: Changes in forest biomass carbon storage in China between 1949 and 1998. Science, 292, 2320–2322.

Farquhar, G.D., S. von Caemmerer, and J.A. Berry, 2001: Models of photosynthesis. Plant Physiol., 125(1), 42–45.

Fearnside, P.M., 2000: Global warming and tropical land-use change: greenhouse gas emissions from biomass burning, decomposition and soils in forest conversion, shifting cultivation and secondary vegetation. Clim. Change, 46, 115–158.

Feddes, R.A., et al., 2001: Modeling root water uptake in hydrological and climate models. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 82(12), 2797–2809.

Feely, R.A., R. Wanninkhof, T. Takahashi, and P. Tans, 1999: Influence of El Nino on the equatorial Pacific contribution to atmospheric CO2 accumulation. Nature, 398(6728), 597–601.

Feely, R.A., et al., 2002: Seasonal and interannual variability of CO2 in the equatorial Pacific. Deep-Sea Res. II, 49, 2443–2469.

Feely, R.A., et al., 2004: Impact of anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 system in the oceans. Science, 305, 362–366.

Feichter, J., E. Roeckner, U. Lohmann, and B. Liepert, 2004: Nonlinear aspects of the climate response to greenhouse gas and aerosol forcing. J. Clim., 17(12), 2384–2398.

Feingold, G., S.M. Kreidenweis, and Y.P. Zhang, 1998: Stratocumulus processing of gases and cloud condensation nuclei - 1. Trajectory ensemble model. J. Geophys. Res., 103(D16), 19527–19542.

Feingold, G., H. Jiang, and J. Y. Harrington, 2005: On smoke suppression of clouds in Amazonia. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L02804, doi:10.1029/2004GL021369.

Feingold, G., W.R. Cotton, S.M. Kreidenweis, and J.T. Davis, 1999: The impact of giant cloud condensation nuclei on drizzle formation in stratocumulus: Implications for cloud radiative properties. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 4100–4117.

Fekete, B.M., C.J. Vorosmarty, and W. Grabs, 2002: High-resolution fields of global runoff combining observed river discharge and simulated water balances. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16, doi:10.1029/1999GB001254.

Felzer, B., et al., 2004: Effects of ozone on net primary production and carbon sequestration in the conterminous United States using a biogeochemistry model. Tellus, 56B, 230–248.

Ferek, R.J., et al., 1998: Measurements of ship-induced tracks in clouds off the Washington coast. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 23199–23206.

Ferretti, D.F., et al., 2005: Unexpected changes to the global methane budget over the past 2000 years. Science, 309, 1714–1717.

Field, C.B., and M.R. Raupach (eds.), 2004: The Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Humans, Climate, and the Natural World. SCOPE 62, Island Press, Washington, DC, 526 pp.

Finzi, A.C., et al., 2006: Progressive nitrogen limitation of ecosystem processes under elevated CO2 in a warm-temperate forest. Ecology, 87, 15–25.

Findell, K.L., and E.A.B. Eltahir, 2003: Atmospheric controls on soil moisture–boundary layer interactions. Part II: Feedbacks within the continental United States. J. Hydrometeorol., 4, 570–583.

Fioletov, V.E., et al., 2002: Global and zonal total ozone variations estimated from ground-based and satellite measurements: 1964–2000. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D22), 4647, doi:10.1029/2001JD001350.

Flannigan, M.D., B.J. Stocks, and B.M. Wotton, 2000: Climate change and forest fires. Sci. Total Environ., 262, 221–229.

Flückiger, J., et al., 2002: High resolution Holocene N2O ice core record and its relationship with CH4 and CO2. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16, doi: 10.1029/2001GB001417.

Folberth, G., D.A. Hauglustaine, P. Ciais, and J. Lathière, 2005: On the role of atmospheric chemistry in the global CO2 budget. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L08801, doi:10.1029/2004GL021812.

Folberth, G.A., D.A. Hauglustaine, J. Lathière, and F. Brocheton, 2006: Interactive chemistry in the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique general circulation model: model description and impact of biogenic hydrocarbons on tropospheric chemistry. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 2273–2319.

Foley, J.A., et al., 2003: Green Surprise? How terrestrial ecosystems could affect Earth’s climate. Frontiers Ecol. Environ., 1(1), 38–44.

Frankenberg, C., et al., 2005: Assessing methane emission from global space-borne observation. Science, 308, 1010–1014.

Frankenberg, C., et al., 2006: Satellite chartography of atmospheric methane from SCIAMACHY on board EMVISAT: Analysis of the years 2003 and 2004. J. Geophys. Res., 111, doi:10.1029/2005JD006235.

Freeman, C., et al., 2004: Export of dissolved organic carbon from peatlands under elevated carbon dioxide levels. Nature, 430, 195–198.

Freitas, S.R., et al., 2005: Monitoring the transport of biomass burning emissions in South America. Environ. Fluid Mech., 5, 135–167.

Frew, R., A. Bowie, P. Croot, and S. Pickmere, 2001: Macronutrient and trace-metal geochemistry of an in situ iron-induced Southern Ocean bloom. Deep-Sea Res. II, 48(11–12), 2467–2481.

Friedlingstein, P., J.-L. Dufresne, P.M. Cox, and P. Rayner, 2003: How positive is the feedback between climate change and the carbon cycle? Tellus, 55B(2), 692–700.

Friedlingstein, P., et al., 2001: Positive feedback between future climate change and the carbon cycle. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1543–1546, doi:10.1029/2000GL012015.

Friedlingstein, P., et al., 2006: Climate-carbon cycle feedback analysis: results from the C4MIP model intercomparison. J. Clim., 19, 3337–3353.

Fu, R., and W. Li, 2004: The influence of the land surface on the transition from dry to wet season in Amazonia. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 78, 97–110, doi:10.1007/s00704-004-0046-7.

Fueglistaler, S., and P.H. Haynes, 2005: Control of interannual and longer-term variability of stratospheric water vapor. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D24108, doi:10.1029/2005JD006019.

Fung, I., S.C. Doney, K. Lindsay, and J. John, 2005: Evolution of carbon sinks in a changing climate. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 102(32), 11201–11206.

Fusco, A.C., and J.A. Logan, 2003: Analysis of 1970-1995 trends in tropospheric ozone at northern hemisphere midlatitudes with the GEOS-CHEM model. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D15), 4449, doi:10.1029/2002JD002742.

Gabric, A.J., et al., 2004: Modeling estimates of the global emission of dimethylsulfide under enhanced greenhouse conditions. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18(2), GB2014, doi:10.1029/2003GB002183.

Galloway, J.N., et al., 2004: Nitrogen cycles: past, present, and future. Biogeochemistry, 70(2), 153–226.

Gamon, J.A., et al., 2003. Remote sensing in BOREAS: Lessons learned. Remote Sens. Environ., 89, 139–162.

Ganzeveld, L.N., et al., 2002: Global soil-biogenic NOx emissions and the role of canopy processes. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D16), 4298, doi:10.1029/2001JD001289.

Gao, Z., et al., 2004: Modeling of surface energy partitioning, surface temperature, and soil wetness in the Tibetan prairie using the Simple Biosphere Model 2 (SiB2). J. Geophys. Res., 109, D06102, doi:10.1029/2003JD004089.

Gattuso, J.-P., D. Allemand, and M. Frankignoulle, 1999: Photosynthesis and calcification at cellular, organismal and community levels in coral reefs: a review on interactions and control by carbonate chemistry. Am. Zool., 39, 160–183.

Gedney, N., and P. Cox, 2003: The sensitivity of global climate model simulations to the representation of soil moisture heterogeneity. J. Hydrometeorol., 4, 1265–1275.

Gedney, N., P.M. Cox, and C. Huntingford, 2004: Climate feedback from wetland methane emissions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L20503, doi:10.1029/2004GL020919.

Gérard, J.C., et al., 1999: The interannual change of atmospheric CO2: contribution of subtropical ecosystems. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 243–246.

Gettelman, A., J.R. Holton, and K.H. Rosenlof, 1997: Mass fluxes of O3, CH4, N2O, and CF2Cl2 in the lower stratosphere calculated from observational data. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 19149–19159.

Ghan, S.J., G. Guzman, and H. Abdul-Razzak, 1998: Competition between sea salt and sulphate particles as cloud condensation nuclei. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 3340–3347.

Giardina, C.P., and M.G. Ryan, 2000: Evidence that decomposition rates of organic carbon in mineral soil do not vary with temperature. Nature, 404, 858–861.

Gillett, N.P., and D.W.J. Thompson, 2003: Simulation of recent Southern Hemisphere climate change. Science, 302, 273–275.

Gillett, N.P., A.J. Weaver, F.W. Zwiers, and M.D. Flannigan, 2004: Detecting the effect of climate change on Canadian forest fires. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(18), L18211, doi:10.1029/2004GL020876.

Ginoux, P., et al., 2001: Sources and distributions of dust aerosols simulated with the GOCART model. J. Geophys. Res., 16, 20255–20274.

Givati, A., and D. Rosenfeld, 2004: Quantifying precipitation suppression due to air pollution. J. Appl. Meteorol., 43(7), 1038–1056.

Gloor, M., et al., 2003: A first estimate of present and preindustrial air-sea CO2 flux patterns based on ocean interior carbon measurements and models. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(1), 1010, doi:10.1029/2002GL015594.

Goncalves, L.G.G., E.J. Burke, and W.J. Shuttleworth, 2004: Application of improved ecosystem aerodynamics in regional weather forecasts. Ecol. Appl., 14, S17–S21.

Gondwe, M., et al., 2003: Correction to ‘‘The contribution of ocean-leaving DMS to the global atmospheric burdens of DMS, MSA, SO, and NSS SO=’’. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 17, 1106, doi:10.1029/2003GB002153.

Gong, S.L., 2003: A parameterization of sea-salt aerosol source function for sub- and super-micron particles. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 17(4), 1097, doi:10.1029/2003GB002079.

Gong, S.L., and L.A. Barrie, 2003: Simulating the impact of sea salt on global nss sulphate aerosols. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D16), 4516, doi:10.1029/2002JD003181.

Goodale, C.L., et al., 2002: Forest carbon sinks in the northern hemisphere. Ecol. Appl., 12(3), 891–899.

Goulden, M.L., et al., 2004: Diel and seasonal patterns of tropical forest CO2 exchange. Ecol. Appl., 14, S42–S54.

Grassl, H., 1975: Albedo reduction and radiative heating of clouds by absorbing aerosol particles. Contrib. Atmos. Phys., 48, 199–210.

Green, P.A., et al., 2004: Pre-industrial and contemporary fluxes of nitrogen through rivers: a global assessment based on typology. Biogeochemistry, 68(1), 71–105.

Grenfell, J.L., D.T. Shindell, and V. Grewe, 2003: Sensitivity studies of oxidative changes in the troposphere in 2100 using the GISS GCM. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 1267–1283.

Grewe, V., et al., 2001: Future changes of the atmospheric composition and the impact on climate change. Tellus, 53B(2), 103–121.

Gruber, N., and C.D. Keeling, 2001: An improved estimate of the isotopic air-sea disequilibrium of CO2: Implications for the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 555–558.

Gruber, N., N. Bates, and C.D. Keeling, 2002: Interannual variability in the North Atlantic Ocean carbon sink. Science, 298(5602), 2374–2378.

Gu, L., et al., 2002: Advantages of diffuse radiation for terrestrial ecosystem productivity. J. Geophys. Res., 107(6), 4050, doi:10.1029/2001JD001242.

Gu, L., et al., 2003: Response of a deciduous forest to the Mt. Pinatubo eruption: enhanced photosynthesis. Science, 299(5615), 2035–2038.

Guenther, A.B., et al., 1993: Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability - model evaluations and sensitivity analyses. J. Geophys. Res., 98(D7), 12609–12617.

Guenther, A.B., et al., 1995: A global-model of natural volatile organic-compound emissions. J. Geophys. Res., 100(D5), 8873–8892.

Guenther, A.B., et al., 1999: Isoprene emission estimates and uncertainties for the Central African EXPRESSO study domain. J. Geophys. Res., 104(D23), 30625–30639.

Guillevic, P., et al., 2002: Influence of the interannual variability of vegetation on the surface energy balance - a global sensitivity study. J. Hydrometeorol., 3, 617–629.

Guo, Z., et al., 2006. GLACE: The Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment. 2. Analysis. J. Hydrometeorol., 7, 611–625.

Gupta, M., et al., 1997: 12C/13C kinetic isotope effects in the reactions of CH4 with OH and Cl. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 2761–2764.

Gurney, K.R., et al., 2002: Towards robust regional estimates of CO2 sources and sinks using atmospheric transport models. Nature, 415(6872), 626–630.

Gurney, K.R., et al., 2003: TransCom 3 CO2 inversion intercomparison: 1. Annual mean control results and sensitivity to transport and prior flux information. Tellus, 55B(2), 555–579.

Gurney, K.R., et al., 2004: Transcom 3 inversion intercomparison: model mean results for the estimation of seasonal carbon sources and sinks. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18(1), GB1010, doi:10.1029/2003GB002111.

Gurney, K.R., et al., 2005: Sensitivity of atmospheric CO2 inversions to seasonal and interannual variations in fossil fuel emissions. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D10308, doi:10.1029/2004JD005373.

Haag, W., and B. Kärcher, 2004: The impact of aerosols and gravity waves on cirrus clouds at midlatitudes. J. Geophys. Res., 109, doi:10.1029/2004JD004579.

Haake, B., and V. Ittekkot, 1990: The wind-driven biological pump and carbon removal in the ocean. Naturwissenschaften, 77(2), 75–79.

Hahmann, A.N., 2003: Representing spatial sub-grid precipitation variability in a GCM. J. Hydrometeorol., 4(5), 891–900.

Handisides, G.M., et al., 2003: Hohenpeissenberg photochemical experiment (HOPE 2000): measurements and photostationary state calculations of OH and peroxy radicals. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 1565–1588.

Hansell, D.A., and C.A. Carlson, 1998: Deep-ocean gradients in the concentration of dissolved organic carbon. Nature, 395, 263–266.

Hansen, J., M. Sato, and R. Ruedy, 1997: Radiative forcing and climate response. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 6831–6864.

Hansen, J., et al., 2005: Efficacy of climate forcings. J. Geophys. Res., 110(D18), D18104, doi:10.1029/2005JD005776.

Hauglustaine, D.A., and G.P. Brasseur, 2001: Evolution of tropospheric ozone under anthropogenic activities and associated radiative forcing of climate. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D23), 3233732360.

Hauglustaine, D., and D.H. Ehhalt, 2002: A three-dimensional model of molecular hydrogen in the troposphere. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D17), doi:10.1029/2001JD001156.

Hauglustaine, D.A., J. Lathière, S. Szopa, and G. Folberth, 2005: Future tropospheric ozone simulated with a climate-chemistry-biosphere model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L24807, doi:10.1029/2005GL024031.

Hauglustaine, D.A., et al., 2004: Interactive chemistry in the laboratoire de meteorologie dynamique general circulation model: description and background tropospheric chemistry. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D04314, doi:10.1029/2003JD003957.

Heald, C.L., et al., 2004: Comparative inverse analysis of satellite (MOPITT) and aircraft (TRACE-P) observations to estimate Asian sources of carbon monoxide. J. Geophys. Res., 109(D23), D23306, doi:10.1029/2004JD005185.

Heard, D.E., et al., 2004: High levels of the hydroxyl radical in the winter urban troposphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18112, doi:10.1029/2004GL020544.

Hein, R., P.J. Crutzen, and M. Heimann, 1997: An inverse modeling approach to investigate the global atmospheric methane cycle. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 11, 43–76.

Heinze, C., 2004: Simulating oceanic CaCO3 export production in the greenhouse. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L16308, doi:10.1029/2004GL020613.

Heinze, C., E. Maier-Reimer, and K. Winn, 1991: Glacial pCO2 reduction by the World Ocean: experiments with the Hamburg carbon cycle model. Paleoceanography, 6(4), 395–430.

Heinze, C., et al., 2003: Sensitivity of the marine biospheric Si cycle for biogeochemical parameter variations. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 17(3), 1086, doi:10.1029/2002GB001943.

Hejzlar, J., M. Dubrovsky, J. Buchtele, and M. Ruzicka, 2003: The apparent and potential effects of climate change on the inferred concentration of dissolved organic matter in a temperate stream (the Malse River, South Bohemia). Sci. Total Environ., 310(1–3), 143–152.

Held, I.M., et al., 2005: Simulation of Sahel drought in the 20th and 21st centuries. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 102(50), 17891–17896

Henderson-Sellers, A., P. Irannejad, K. McGuffie, and A.J. Pitman, 2003: Predicting land-surface climates - better skill or moving targets? Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(14), 1777, doi:10.1029/2003GL017387.

Hendricks, J., B. Kärcher, M. Ponater, and U. Lohmann, 2005: Do aircraft black carbon emissions affect cirrus clouds on a global scale? Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L12814, doi:10.1029/2005GL022740.

Hendricks, J., et al., 2004: Simulating the global atmospheric black carbon cycle: A revisit to the contribution of aircraft emissions. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 2521–2541.

Hesselbo, S.P., et al., 2000: Massive dissociation of gas hydrate during a Jurassic oceanic anoxic event. Nature, 406, 392–395.

Heue, K.-P., et al., 2005: Validation of SCIAMACHY tropospheric NO2 columns with AMAXDOAS measurements. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 1039–1051.

Hirsch, A.I., et al., 2006: Inverse modeling estimates of the global nitrous oxide surface flux from 1998–2001. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 20, GB1008, doi:10.1029/2004GB002443.

Hoerling, M., and A. Kumar, 2003: The perfect ocean for drought. Science, 299(5607), 691–694.

Hoffman, W.A., W. Schroeder, and R.B. Jackson, 2002: Positive feedbacks of fire, climate, and vegetation and the conversion of tropical savanna. Geophys. Res. Lett., 15, doi:10.1029/2002G0152.

Hofzumahaus, A., et al., 2004: Photolysis frequency of O3 to O(1D): Measurements and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI). J. Geophys. Res., 109, D08S90, doi:10.1029/2003JD004333.

Holland, E.A., and M.A. Carroll, 2003: Atmospheric chemistry and the bio-atmospheric carbon and nitrogen cycles. In: Interactions of the Major Biogeochemical Cycles, Global Change and Human Impacts [Melillo, J.M., C.B. Field, and B. Moldan (eds.)]. SCOPE 61, Island Press, Washington, DC, pp. 273–294.

Holland, E.A., F.J. Dentener, B.H. Braswell, and J.M. Sulzman, 1999: Contemporary and pre-industrial reactive nitrogen budgets. Biogeochemistry, 46, 7–43.

Holland, E.A., B.H. Braswell, J. Sulzman, and J.F. Lamarque, 2005a: Nitrogen deposition onto the United States and Western Europe: synthesis of observations and models. Ecol. Appl., 15, 38–57.

Holland, E.A., J. Lee-Taylor, C. Nevison, and J. Sulzman, 2005b: Global N Cycle: Fluxes and N2O mixing ratios originating from human activity. Data set. Available online from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, TN, http://www.daac.ornl.gov.

Holland, E.A., et al., 2005c: U.S. nitrogen science plan focuses collaborative efforts. Eos, 86(27), 253–260.

Hollinger, D.Y., et al., 1999: Seasonal patterns and environmental control of carbon dioxide and water vapour exchange in an ecotonal boreal forest. Global Change Biol., 5, 891–902.

Holzer, M., and G.J. Boer, 2001: Simulated changes in atmospheric transport climate. J. Clim., 14, 4398–4420.

Hong, J., T. Choi, H. Ishikawa, and J. Kim, 2004: Turbulence structures in the near-neutral surface layer on the Tibetan Plateau. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L15106, doi:10.1029/2004GL019935.

Hoppel, W.A., J.W. Fitzgerald, G.M. Frick, and R.E. Larson, 1990: Aerosol size distributions and optical properties found in the marine boundary layer over the Atlantic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 95, 3659–3686.

Horowitz, L.W., et al., 2003: A global simulation of tropospheric ozone and related tracers: description and evaluation of MOZART, version 2. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4784, doi:10.1029/2002JD002853.

Houghton, R.A., 1999: The annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land use 1850-1990. Tellus, 51B, 298–313.

Houghton, R.A., 2003a: Revised estimates of the annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land use and land management 1850-2000. Tellus, 55B(2), 378–390.

Houghton, R.A., 2003b: Why are estimates of the terrestrial carbon balance so different? Global Change Biol., 9, 500–509.

Houghton, R.A., et al., 2000: Annual fluxes of carbon from deforestation and regrowth in the Brazilian Amazon. Nature, 403, 301–304.

Houweling, S., F. Dentener, and J. Lelieveld, 1998: The impact of nonmethane hydrocarbon compounds on tropospheric photochemistry. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 10673–10696.

Houweling, S., F. Dentener, and J. Lelieveld, 2000: Simulation of preindustrial atmospheric methane to constrain the global source strength of natural wetlands. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 17243–17255.

Hoyle, C.R., B.P. Luo, and T. Peter, 2005: The origin of high ice crystal number densities in cirrus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 2568–2579.

Hu, H., 1996: Water vapour and temperature lapse rate feedbacks in the mid-latitude seasonal cycle. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 1761–1764.

Huang, Y., R.E. Dickinson, and W.L. Chameides, 2006: Impact of aerosol indirect effect on climate over East Asia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 103, 4371–4376.

Huck, P.E., A.J. McDonald, G.E. Bodeker, and H. Struthers, 2005: Interannual variability in Antarctic ozone depletion controlled by planetary waves and polar temperatures. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L13819, doi:10.1029/2005GL022943.

Hudman, R.C., et al., 2004: Ozone production in transpacific Asian pollution plumes and implications for ozone air quality in California. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D23S10, doi:10.1029/2004JD004974.

Hughes, T.P., et al., 2003: Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs. Science, 301, 929–933.

Hungate, B., et al., 2003: Nitrogen and climate change. Science, 302(5650), 1512–1513.

Huntingford, C., et al., 2004: Using a GCM analogue model to investigate the potential for Amazonian forest dieback. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 78(1–3), 177–185.

Hurst, D.F., et al., 2006: Continuing global significance of emissions of Montreal Protocol-restricted halocarbons in the USA and Canada. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D15302, doi:10.1029/2005JD006785.

Hurtt, G.C., et al., 2002: Projecting the future of the U.S. carbon sink. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 99(3), 1389–1394.

IFFN, 2003: Russian Federation Fire 2002 Special. Part III: The 2002 fire season in the Asian part of the Russian Federation: A view from space. International Forest Fire News (IFFN), 28, 18–28.

Imhoff, M.L., et al., 2004: Global patterns in human consumption of net primary production. Nature, 429(6994), 870–873.

IPCC, 2000: Special Report on Emission Scenarios. A Special Report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Nakićenović, N., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 599 pp.

IPCC/TEAP, 2005: IPCC/TEAP Special Report on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System: Issues related to Hydrofluorocarbons and Perfluorocarbons. Prepared by Working Group I and III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel [Metz, B., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 488 pp.

Irannejad, P., A. Henderson-Sellers, and S. Sharmeen, 2003: Importance of land-surface parameterisation for latent heat simulation in global atmospheric models. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(17), 1904, doi:10.1029/2003GL018044.

Irie, H., et al., 2005: Evaluation of long-term tropospheric NO2 data obtained by GOME over East Asia in 1996-2002. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L11810, doi:10.1029/2005GL022770.

Ishimatsu, A., et al., 2004: Effects of CO2 on marine fish: larvae and adults. J. Oceanogr., 60, 731–741.

Ittekkot, V., 1993: The abiotically driven biological pump in the ocean and short-term fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 contents. Global Planet. Change, 8(1–2), 17–25.

Jacob, D.J., 2000: Heterogeneous chemistry and tropospheric ozone. Atmos. Environ., 34, 2131–2159.

Jacob, D.J., et al., 1993: Factors regulating ozone over the United States and its export to the global atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 14817–14826.

Jacobson, M.Z., 1999: Effects of soil moisture on temperatures, winds, and pollutant concentrations in Los Angeles. J. Appl. Meteorol., 38(5), 607–616.

Jacobson, M.Z., 2001: Global direct radiative forcing due to multicomponent anthropogenic and natural aerosols. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 1551–1568.

Jacobson, M.Z., 2002: Control of fossil-fuel particulate black carbon and organic matter, possibly the most effective method of slowing global warming. J. Geophys. Res., 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD001376.

Jacobson, M.Z., 2006: Effects of externally-through-internally-mixed soot inclusions within clouds and precipitation on global climate. J. Phys. Chem. A, 110, 6860–6873.

Jaeglé, L., D.J. Jacob, W.H. Brune, and P.O. Wenberg, 2001: Chemistry of HOx radicals in the upper troposphere. Atmos. Environ., 35, 469–489.

Jaeglé, L., L. Steinberger, R.V. Martin, and K. Chance, 2005: Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: Relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and soil emissions. Faraday Discuss., 130, 407–423.

Jaeglé, L., et al., 2004: Satellite mapping of rain-induced nitric oxide emissions from soils. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D21310, doi:10.1029/2004JD004787.

Jaenicke, R., 2005: Abundance of cellular material and proteins in the atmosphere. Science, 308(5718), doi:10.1126/science.1106335.

Jaffe, D., et al., 2004: Long-range transport of Siberian biomass burning emissions and impact on surface ozone in western North America. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L16106, doi:10.1029/2004GL020093.

Jahren, A.H., et al., 2001: Terrestrial record of methane hydrate dissociation in the Early Cretaceous. Geology, 29(2), 159–162.

Jain, A.K., and X. Yang, 2005: Modeling the effects of two different land cover change data sets on the carbon stocks of plants and soils in concert in CO2 and climate change. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19, doi:10.1029/2004GB002349.

Janssens, I.A., et al., 2003: Europe’s terrestrial biosphere absorbs 7 to 12% of European anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Science, 300(5625), 1538–1542.

Jiang, H., et al., 2006: Aerosol effects on the lifetime of shallow cumulus. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, doi:10.1029/2006GL026024.

Jickells, T.D., et al., 2005: Global iron connections between desert dust, ocean biogeochemistry, and climate. Science, 308(5718), 67–71.

Jin, M.L., J.M. Shepherd, and M.D. King, 2005: Urban aerosols and their variations with clouds and rainfall: a case study for New York and Houston. J. Geophys. Res., 110, doi:10.1029/2004JD005081.

Jin, Y., et al., 2002: How does snow impact the albedo of vegetated land surfaces as analyzed with MODIS data? Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, doi:10.1029/2001GLO14132.

Johns, T.C., et al., 2006: The new Hadley Centre climate model HadGEM1: Evaluation of coupled simulations. J. Clim., 19, 1327–1353.

Johnson, B.T., 2005: The semidirect aerosol effect: Comparison of a single-column model with large eddy simulation for marine stratocumulus. J. Clim., 18, 119–130.

Johnson, B.T., K.P. Shine, and P.M. Forster, 2004: The semi-direct aerosol effect: Impact of absorbing aerosols on marine stratocumulus. Q. J .R. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 1407–1422.

Johnson, C.E., W.J. Collins, D.S. Stevenson, and R.G. Derwent, 1999: Relative roles of climate and emissions changes on future tropospheric oxidant concentrations. J. Geophys. Res., 104(D15), 18631–18645.

Johnson, C.E., D.S. Stevenson, W.J. Collins, and R.G. Derwent, 2001: Role of climate feedback on methane and ozone studied with a coupled ocean-atmosphere-chemistry model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(9), 1723–1726.

Johnson, C.E., D.S. Stevenson, W.J. Collins, and R.G. Derwent, 2002: Interannual variability in methane growth rate simulated with a coupled ocean-atmosphere-chemistry model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(19), 1903, doi:10.1029/2002GL015269.

Johnson, D.B., 1982: The role of giant and ultragiant aerosol particles in warm rain initiation. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 448–460.

Jones, A., D.L. Roberts, M.J. Woodage, and C. E. Johnson, 2001: Indirect sulphate aerosol forcing in a climate model with an interactive sulphur cycle. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 20293–20310.

Jones, C., N. Mahowald, and C. Luo, 2004: Observational evidence of African desert dust intensification of easterly waves. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, doi:10.1029/2004GL020107.

Jones, C.D., and P.M. Cox, 2001a: Modelling the volcanic signal in the atmospheric CO2 record. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15(2), 453–466.

Jones, C.D., and P.M. Cox, 2001b: Constraints on the temperature sensitivity of global soil respiration from the observed interannual variability in atmospheric CO2. Atmos. Sci. Lett., 1, doi:10.1006/asle.2001.0041.

Jones, C.D., and P.M. Cox, 2005: On the significance of atmospheric CO2 growth rate anomalies in 2002–2003. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L14816, doi:10.1029/2005GL023027.

Jones, C.D., M. Collins, P.M. Cox, and S.A. Spall, 2001: The carbon cycle response to ENSO: a coupled climate-carbon cycle model study. J. Clim., 14, 4113–4129.

Jones, C.D., et al., 2005: Global climate change and soil carbon stocks: predictions from two contrasting models for the turnover of organic carbon in soil. Global Change Biol., 11(1), 154–166.

Jones, P.D., D.E. Parker, T.J. Osborn, and K.R. Briffa, 2006: Global and hemispheric temperature anomalies--land and marine instrumental records. In: Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN.

Kanakidou, M., et al., 2005: Organic aerosol and global climate modelling: a review. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 1053–1123.

Kärcher, B., and U. Lohmann, 2002: A parameterization of cirrus cloud formation: homogeneous freezing of supercooled aerosols. J. Geophys. Res., 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD000470.

Kärcher, B., and U. Lohmann, 2003: A parameterization of cirrus cloud formation: heterogeneous freezing. J. Geophys. Res., 108, doi:10.1029/2002JD003220.

Kärcher, B., and J. Ström, 2003: The roles of dynamical variability and aerosols in cirrus cloud formation. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 823–838.

Kärcher, B., and T. Koop, 2004: The role of organic aerosols in homogeneous ice formation. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 6719–6745.

Kärcher, B., J. Hendricks, and U. Lohmann, 2006: Physically-based parameterization of cirrus cloud formation for use in global atmospheric models. J. Geophys. Res., 111, doi:10.1029/2005JD006219.

Karlsdottir, S., and I.S.A. Isaksen, 2000: Changing methane lifetime: Possible cause for reduced growth. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27(1), 9396.

Kasibhatla, P., et al., 2002: Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(19), 1900, doi:10.1029/2002GL015581.

Kasischke, E.S., and L.P. Bruhwiler, 2002: Emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane from boreal forest fires in 1998. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8146, doi:10.1029/2001JD000461.

Kasischke, E.S., N.L. Christensen, and B.J. Stocks, 1995: Fire, global warming and the carbon balance of boreal forests. Ecol. Appl., 5(2), 437–451.

Kasischke, E.S., et al., 2005: Influences of boreal fire emissions on Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon and carbon monoxide. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19(1), GB1012, doi:10.1029/2004GB002300.

Katz, M.E., D.K. Pak, G.R. Dickens, and K.G. Miller. 1999: The source and fate of massive carbon input during the Latest Paleocene Thermal Maximum. Science, 286, 1531–1533.

Kaufman, Y.J., and I. Koren, 2006: Smoke and pollution aerosol effect on cloud cover. Science, 313, 655–658, doi:10.1126/science.1126232.

Kaufman, Y.J., et al., 2005: The effect of smoke, dust, and pollution aerosol on shallow cloud development over the Atlantic Ocean. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 102(32), 11207–11212.

Kawamiya, M., et al., 2005: Development of an integrated Earth system model on the Earth Simulator. J. Earth Simulator, 4, 18–30.

Keeling, C.D., and T.P. Whorf, 2005: Atmospheric CO2 records from sites in the SIO air sampling network. In: Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN, http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/co2/sio-keel-flask/sio-keel-flask.html.

Keller, M., et al., 2005: Soil-atmosphere exchange for nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide in logged and undisturbed forest in the Tapajos National Forest, Brazil. Earth Interactions, 9, 1–28, doi:10.1175/EI125.1.

Keppler, F., J.T.G. Hamilton, M. Brass, and T. Roeckmann, 2006: Methane emissions from terrestrial plants under aerobic conditions. Nature, 439, 187–191.

Kerkweg, A., S. Wurzler, T. Reisin, and A. Bott, 2003: On the cloud processing of aerosol particles: An entraining air-parcel model with two-dimensional spectral cloud microphysics and a new formulation of the collection kernel. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 129(587), 1–18.

Kettle, A., and M. Andreae, 2000: Flux of the dimethylsulfide from the oceans: A comparison of updated data sets and flux models. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 26793–26808.

Key, R.M., et al., 2004: A global ocean carbon climatology: Results from Global Data Analysis Project (GLODAP). Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18(4), GB4031, doi:10.1029/2004GB002247.

Khain, A.P., D. Rosenfeld, and A. Pokrovsky, 2001: Simulating convective clouds with sustained supercooled liquid water down to –37.5°C using a spectral microphysics model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3887–3890.

Khain, A.P., D. Rosenfeld, and A. Pokrovsky, 2005: Aerosol impact on the dynamics and microphysics of convective clouds. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 131(611), 2639–2663.

Khain, A.P., et al., 2004: Simulation of effects of atmospheric aerosols on deep turbulent convective using a spectral microphysics mixed-phase cumulus cloud model. 1. Model description and possible applications. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 2963–2982.

Khalil, M.A.K., and M.J. Shearer, 2006: Decreasing emissions of methane from rice agriculture. Int. Congress Ser., 1293, 33–41.

Kirschbaum, M.U.F., et al., 2006: A comment on the quantitative significance of aerobic methane release by plants. Funct. Plant Biol., 33, 521–530.

Kirschvink, J.L., and T.D. Raub, 2003: A methane fuse for the Cambrian explosion: carbon cycles and true polar wander. Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 335, 65–78.

Klaas, C., and D.E. Archer, 2002: Association of sinking organic matter with various types of mineral ballast in the deep sea: Implications for the rain ratio. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16(4), 1116, doi:10.1029/2001GB001765.

Kleffmann, J., et al., 2005: Daytime formation of nitrous acid: a major source of OH radicals in a forest. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L05818, doi:10.1029/2005GL022524.

Kleypas, J.A., J. McManus, and L. Menez, 1999a: Using environmental data to define reef habitat: where do we draw the line? Am. Zool., 39, 146–159.

Kleypas, J.A., et al., 1999b: Geochemical consequences of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide on coral reefs. Science, 284, 118–120.

Kloster, S., et al., 2006: DMS cycle in the marine ocean-atmosphere system - a global model study. Biogeosciences, 3, 29–51.

Knorr, W., I.C. Prentice, J.I. House, and E.A. Holland, 2005: Long-term sensitivity of soil carbon turnover to warming. Nature, 433, 298–301.

Knowlton, K., et al., 2004: Assessing ozone-related health impacts under a changing climate. Environ. Health Perspect., 112, 1557–1563.

Koerner, C., 2004: Through enhanced tree dynamics carbon dioxide enrichment may cause tropical forests to lose carbon. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 359, 493–498.

Koerner, C., et al., 2005: Carbon flux and growth in mature deciduous forest trees exposed to elevated CO2. Science, 309(5739), 1360–1362.

Koren, I., Y.J. Kaufman, L.A. Remer, and J.V. Martins, 2004: Measurements of the effect of smoke aerosol on inhibition of cloud formation. Science, 303, 1342–1345.

Koren, I., et al., 2005: Aerosol invigoration and restructuring of Atlantic convective clouds. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32(14), L14828, doi:10.1029/2005GL023187.

Koster, R.D., and M.J. Suarez, 2001: Soil moisture memory in climate models. J. Hydrometeorol., 2(6), 558–570.

Koster, R.D., and M.J. Suarez, 2004: Suggestions in the observational record of land-atmosphere feedback operating at seasonal time scales. J. Hydrometeorol., 5(3), doi: 10.1175/1525.

Koster, R.D., M.J. Suarez, R.W. Higgins, and H.M. Van den Dool, 2003: Observational evidence that soil moisture variations affect precipitation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(5), 1241. doi:10.1029/2002GL016571.

Koster, R.D., et al., 2000: A catchment-based approach to modeling land surface processes in a general circulation model. 1. Model structure. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 24809–24822.

Koster, R.D., et al., 2002: Comparing the degree of land-atmosphere interaction in four atmospheric general circulation models. J. Hydrometeorol., 3(3), 363–375.

Koster, R.D., et al., 2004: Regions of strong coupling between soil moisture and precipitation. Science, 305, 1138–1140.

Koster, R.D., et al., 2006: GLACE: The Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment. 1. Overview. J. Hydrometeorol., 7, 590–610.

Krakauer, N.Y., and J.T. Randerson, 2003: Do volcanic eruptions enhance or diminish net primary production? Evidence from tree rings. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 17(4), 1118, doi:10.1029/2003GB002076.

Kristjánsson, J.E., 2002: Studies of the aerosol indirect effect from sulphate and black carbon aerosols. J. Geophys. Res., 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD000887.

Kristjánsson, J.E., et al., 2005: Response of the climate system to aerosol direct and indirect forcing: Role of cloud feedbacks. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D24206, doi:10.1029/2005JD006299.

Kroeze, C., A. Mosier, and L. Bouwman, 1999: Closing the N2O budget: A retrospective analysis. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 13, 1–8.

Kroeze, C., E. Dumont, and S.P. Seitzinger, 2005: New estimates of global emissions of N2O from rivers and estuaries. Environ. Sci., 2, 159–165.

Krüger, O., and H. Grassl, 2004: Albedo reduction by absorbing aerosols over China. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, doi:10.1029/2003GL019111.

Kulmala, M., et al., 2004: A new feedback mechanism linking forests, aerosols, and climate. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 557–562.

Kurz, W.A., and M. Apps, 1999: A 70-years retrospective analysis of carbon fluxes in the Canadian forest sector. Ecol. Appl., 9, 526–547.

Kurz, W.A., M.J. Apps, S.J. Beukema, and T. Lekstrum, 1995: 20th-century carbon budget of Canadian forests. Tellus, 47B(1–2), 170–177.

Kvenvolden, K.A., and B.W. Rogers, 2005: Gaia’s breath - global methane exhalations. Mar. Petrol. Geol., 22, 579–590.

Labrador, L.J., R. von Kuhlmann, and M.G. Lawrence, 2004: Strong sensitivity of the global mean OH concentration and the tropospheric oxidizing efficiency to the source of NOx from lightning. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L06102, doi:10.1029/2003GL019229.

Lalli, C.M., and R.W. Gilmer, 1989: Pelagic Snails: The Biology of Holoplanktonic Gastropod Mollusks. Stanford University Press, Palo Alto, CA, 259 pp.

Lamarque, J.-F., et al., 2005a: Coupled chemistry-climate response to changes in aerosol emissions: global impact on the hydrological cycle and the tropospheric burdens of OH, ozone and NOx. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L16809, doi:10.1029/2005GL023419.

Lamarque J.-F., et al., 2005b: Assessing future nitrogen deposition and carbon cycle feedback using a multimodel approach: Part 1. Analysis of nitrogen deposition. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D19303, doi:10.1029/2005JD005825.

Lamarque, J.-F., et al., 2005c: Tropospheric ozone evolution between 1890 and 1990. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D08304, doi:10.1029/2004JD005537.

Langdon, C., et al., 2003: Effect of elevated CO2 on the community metabolism of an experimental coral reef. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 17, 1011, doi:10.1029/2002GB001941.

Langenbuch, H., and H.O. Pörtner, 2003: Energy budget of heptocytes from Antarctic fish (Pachycara brachycephalum and Lepidonotothen kempi) as a function of ambient CO2: pH-dependent limitations of cellular protein biosynthesis? J. Exp. Biol., 206, 3895–3903.

Langenfelds, R.L., et al., 1999: Partitioning of the global fossil CO2 sink using a 19-year trend in atmospheric O2. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1897–1900.

Langenfelds, R.L., et al., 2002: Interannual growth rate variations of atmospheric CO2 and its 13C, H2, CH4, and CO between 1992 and 1999 linked to biomass burning. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16(3), 1048, doi:10.1029/2001GB001466.

Langner, J., R. Bergstrom, and V. Foltescu, 2005: Impact of climate change on surface ozone and deposition of sulphur and nitrogen in Europe. Atmos. Environ., 39, 1129–1141.

Larsen, S.H., 2005: Solar variability, dimethyl sulphide, clouds, and climate. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19, GB1014, doi:10.1029/2004GB002333.

Lassey, K.R., D.C Lowe, and M.R. Manning, 2000: The trend in atmospheric methane δ13C and implications for isotopic constraints on the global methane budget. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 14, 41–49.

Lathière, J., et al., 2005: Past and future changes in biogenic volatile organic compound emissions simulated with a global dynamic vegetation model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L20818, doi:10.1029/2005GL024164.

Laurance, W.F., et al., 2004: Pervasive alteration of tree communities in undisturbed Amazonian forests. Nature, 428, 171–175.

Lawrence, D.M., and J.M. Slingo, 2004: An annual cycle of vegetation in a GCM. Part I: implementation and impact on evaporation. Clim. Dyn., 22, doi:10.1007/s0038200303669.

Lawrence, D.M., and J.M. Slingo, 2005: Weak land-atmosphere coupling strength in HadAM3: The role of soil moisture variability. J. Hydrometeorol., 6(5), 670–680, doi:10.1775/JHM445.1.

Lawrence, M.G., R. von Kuhlmann, M. Salzmann, and P.J. Rasch, 2003: The balance of effects of deep convective mixing on tropospheric ozone. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(18), 1940, doi:10.1029/2003GL017644.

Laws, E.A., et al., 2000: Temperature effects on export production in the open ocean. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 14, 1231–1246.

Le Quéré, C., et al., 2000: Interannual variability of the oceanic sink of CO2 from 1979 to 1997. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 14, 1247–1265.

Le Quéré, C., et al., 2003: Two decades of ocean CO2 sink and variability. Tellus, 55B(2), 649–656.

Le Quéré, C., et al., 2005: Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models. Global Change Biol., 11, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.001004.x.

Leck, C., and E.K. Bigg, 2005a: Biogenic particles in the surface microlayer and overlaying atmosphere in the central Arctic Ocean during summer. Tellus, 57B(4), 305–316.

Leck, C., and E.K. Bigg, 2005b: Source and evolution of the marine aerosol - A new perspective. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L19803, doi:10.1029/2005GL023651.

Lee, K., et al., 1998: Low interannual variability in recent oceanic uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Nature, 396, 155–159.

Lefèvre, N., et al., 1999: Assessing the seasonality of the oceanic sink for CO2 in the northern hemisphere. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles, 13, 273–286.

Lelieveld, J., and F.J. Dentener, 2000: What controls tropospheric ozone? J. Geophys. Res., 105, 3531–3551.

Lelieveld, J., W. Peters, F.J. Dentener, and M.C. Krol, 2002a: Stability of tropospheric hydroxyl chemistry. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D23), 4715, doi:10.1029/2002JD002272.

Lelieveld, J., et al., 2002b: Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean. Science, 298, 794–799.

Leue, C., et al., 2001: Quantitative analysis of NOx emissions from GOME satellite image sequences. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 5493–5505.

Levin, Z., E. Ganor, and V. Gladstein, 1996: The effects of desert particles coated with sulfate on rain formation in the eastern Mediterranean. J. Appl. Meteorol., 35, 1511–1523.

Levis, S., and G.B. Bonan, 2004: Simulating springtime temperature patterns in the community atmosphere model coupled to the community land model using prognostic leaf area. J. Clim., 17, 4531–4540.

Levis, S., G.B. Bonan, and C. Bonfils, 2004: Soil feedback drives the mid-Holocene North African monsoon northward in fully coupled CCSM2 simulations with a dynamic vegetation model. Clim. Dyn., 23, doi:10.1007/s00382-004-0477-y.

Lewis, E.R., and S.E. Schwartz, 2005: Sea Salt Aerosol Production: Mechanisms, Methods, Measurements, and Models: A Critical Review. Geophysical Monograph Vol. 152, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 413 pp.

Lewis, S.L., Y. Malhi, and O.L. Phillips, 2005: Fingerprinting the impacts of global change on tropical forests. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 359, doi:10.1098/rstb.2003.1432.

Li, C., et al., 2002: Reduced methane emissions from large-scale changes in water management of China’s rice paddies during 1980-2000. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, doi: 10.1029/2002GL015370.

Li, Q., et al., 2005: North American pollution outflow and the trapping of convectively lifted pollution by upper-level anticyclone. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D10301, doi:10.1029/2004JD005039.

Li, W., and R. Fu, 2004: Transition of the large-scale atmospheric and land surface conditions from the dry to the wet season over Amazonia as diagnosed by the ECMWF re-analysis. J. Clim., 17, 2637–2651.

Liang X., Z. Xie, and M. Huang, 2003: A new parameterization for surface and groundwater interactions and its impact on water budgets with the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) land surface model. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 8613, doi:19.1029/2002JD003090.

Liao, H., and J.H. Seinfeld, 2005: Global impacts of gas-phase chemistry-aerosol interactions on direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic aerosols and ozone. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D18208, doi:10.1029/2005JD005907.

Liebmann, B., and J.A. Marengo, 2001: Interannual variability of the rainy season and rainfall in the Brazilian Amazon basin. J. Clim., 14(22), 4308–4318.

Liepert, B.G., and I. Tegen, 2002: Multidecadal solar radiation trends in the United States and Germany and direct tropospheric aerosol forcing. J. Geophys. Res., 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD000760.

Liepert, B.G., J. Feichter, U. Lohmann, and E. Roeckner, 2004: Can aerosols spin down the water cycle in a warmer and moister world. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L06207, doi:10.1029/2003GL019060.

Lin, C.-Y.C., D.J. Jacob, and A.M. Fiore, 2001: Trends in exceedances of the ozone air quality standard in the continental United States, 1980-1998. Atmos. Environ., 35, 3217–3228.

Lin, G.H., et al., 1999: Ecosystem carbon exchange in two terrestrial ecosystem mesocosms under changing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Oecologia, 119(1), 97–108.

Lintner, B.R., 2002: Characterizing global CO2 interannual variability with empirical orthogonal function/principal component (EOF/PC) analysis. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(19), 1921, doi:10.1029/2001GL014419.

Liu, X., and J.E. Penner, 2005: Ice nucleation parameterization for a global model. Meteorol. Z., 14(4), 499–514.

Liu, Y., and P.H. Daum, 2002: Indirect warming effect from dispersion forcing. Nature, 419, 580–581.

Loh, A.N., J.E. Bauer, and E.R.M. Druffel, 2004: Variable ageing and storage of dissolved organic components in the open ocean. Nature, 430, 877–881.

Lohmann, U., 2002: A glaciation indirect aerosol effect caused by soot aerosols. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, doi:10.1029/2001GL014357.

Lohmann, U., and J. Feichter, 2001: Can the direct and semi-direct aerosol effect compete with the indirect effect on a global scale? Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(1), 159–161, doi:10.1029/2000GL012051.

Lohmann, U., and B. Kärcher, 2002: First interactive simulations of cirrus clouds formed by homogeneous freezing in the ECHAM GCM. J. Geophys. Res., 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD000767.

Lohmann, U., and G. Lesins, 2002: Stronger constraints on the anthropogenic indirect aerosol effect. Science, 298, 1012–1016.

Lohmann, U., and J. Feichter, 2005: Global indirect aerosol effects: a review. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 715–737.

Lohmann, U., and K. Diehl, 2006: Sensitivity studies of the importance of dust ice nuclei for the indirect aerosol effect on stratiform mixed-phase clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 1338–1347.

Lohmann, U., I. Koren, and Y.J. Kaufman, 2006: Disentangling the role of microphysical and dynamical effects in determining cloud properties over the Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L09802, doi:10.1029/2005GL024625.

Lovins, A.B., 2003: Hydrogen primer. RMI Solutions Newsletter, 19(2), 1–4; 36–39.

Lucht, W., et al., 2002: Climatic control of the high-latitude vegetation greening trend and Pinatubo effect. Science, 296(5573), 1687–1689.

Luo, Y., S.Q. Wan, D.F. Hui, and L.L. Wallace, 2001: Acclimatization of soil respiration to warming in a tall grass prairie. Nature, 413, 622–625.

Luo, Y., et al., 2004: Progressive nitrogen limitation of ecosystem responses to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide. Bioscience, 54, 731–739.

Mack, F., J. Hoffstadt, G. Esser, and J.G. Goldammer, 1996: Modeling the influence of vegetation fires on the global carbon cycle. In: Biomass Burning and Global Change [Levine, J.S. (ed)]. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 149–159.

Mahaffey, C., A.F. Michaels, and D.G. Capone, 2005: The conundrum of marine N2 fixation. Am. J. Sci., 305(6–8): 546–595.

Mahowald, N.M., and L.M. Kiehl, 2003: Mineral aerosol and cloud interactions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, doi:10.1029/2002GL016762.

Mahowald, N.M., and C. Luo, 2003: A less dusty future? Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(7), 1903, doi:10.1029/2003GL017880.

Mahowald, N.M., G.D.R. Rivera, and C. Luo, 2004: Comment on “Relative importance of climate and land use in determining present and future global soil dust emission” by I. Tegen et al. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(24), L24105, doi:10.1029/2004GL021272.

Maier-Reimer, E., U. Mikolajewicz, and A.Winguth, 1996: Future ocean uptake of CO2: interaction between ocean circulation and biology. Clim. Dyn., 12, 711–721.

Malhi, Y., and J. Grace, 2000: Tropical forests and atmospheric carbon dioxide. Trends Ecol. Evol., 15(8), 332–337.

Malhi, Y., and O.L. Phillips, 2004: Tropical forests and global atmospheric change: a synthesis. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 359, doi:10.1098/rstb.2003.1449.

Malhi, Y., and J. Wright, 2004: Spatial patterns and recent trends in the climate of tropical rainforest regions. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 359, doi:10.1098/rstb.2003.1433.

Malhi, Y., et al., 2002: An international network to understand the biomass and dynamics of Amazonian forests (RAINFOR). J. Veg. Sci., 13, 439–450.

Manning, A.C., and R.F. Keeling, 2006: Global oceanic and land biotic carbon sinks from the Scripps atmospheric oxygen flask sampling network. Tellus, 58B(2), 95–116.

Marani, M., E. Eltahir, and A. Rinaldo, 2001: Geomorphic controls on regional base flow. Water Resour. Res., 37, 2619–2630.

Marengo, J., and C.A. Nobre, 2001: The hydroclimatological framework in Amazonia. In: Biogeochemistry of the Amazon Basin [McClaine, M., R. Victoria, and J. Richey (eds.)]. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 17–42.

Marland, G., T.A. Boden, and R.J. Andres, 2006: Global, regional, and national CO2 emissions. In: Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN, http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/emis/tre_glob.htm.

Martin, R.V., et al., 2002: Interpretation of TOMS observations of tropical tropospheric ozone with a global model and in-situ observations. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D18), 4351, doi:10.1029/2001JD001480.

Martin, R.V., et al., 2003a: Global inventory of nitrogen oxide emissions constrained by space-based observations of NO2 columns. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D17), 4537, doi:10.1029/2003JD003453.

Martin, R.V., et al., 2003b: Global and regional decreases in tropospheric oxidants from photochemical effects of aerosols. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D3), 4097, doi:10.1029/2002JD002622.

Martinerie, P., G.P. Brasseur, and C. Granier, 1995: The chemical composition of ancient atmospheres: a model study constrained by ice core data. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 14291–14304.

Matsumi, Y., et al., 2002: Quantum yields for production of O(1D) in the ultraviolet photolysis of ozone: Recommendation based on evaluation of laboratory data. J. Geophys. Res., 104(D3), doi:10.1029/2001JD000510.

Matthews, H.D., M. Eby, A.J. Weaver, and B.J. Hawkins, 2005: Primary productivity control of simulated carbon cycle-climate feedbacks. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L14708, doi:10.1029/2005GL022941.

Matthews, R., and R. Wassmann, 2003: Modelling the impacts of climate change and methane emission reductions on rice production: a review. Eur. J. Agron., 19, 573–598.

Maynard, K., and J.-F. Royer, 2004: Sensitivity of a general circulation model to land surface parameters in African tropical deforestation experiments. Clim. Dyn., 22, doi:10.1007/s0038200403989.

McCabe, G.J., M.P. Clark, and M.C. Serreze, 2001: Trends in northern hemisphere surface cyclone frequency and intensity. J. Clim., 14, 2763–2768.

McFiggans, G., 2005: Marine aerosols and iodine emissions. Nature, 433, E13.

McFiggans, G., et al., 2004: Direct evidence for coastal iodine particles from Laminaria macroalgae - linkage to emissions of molecular iodine. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 701–713.

McGuire, A.D. III, et al., 2001: Carbon balance of the terrestrial biosphere in the twentieth century: Analyses of CO2, climate and land use effects with four process-based ecosystem models. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15, 183–206.

McKenzie, R.L., B.J. Connor, and G.E. Bodeker, 1999: Increased summertime UV observed in New Zealand in response to ozone loss. Science, 285, 1709–1711.

McKinley, G.A., M.J. Follows, and J. Marshall, 2004a: Mechanisms of air-sea CO2 flux variability in the equatorial Pacific and the North Atlantic. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18, GB2011, doi:10.1029/2003GB002179.

McKinley, G.A., et al., 2004b: Pacific dominance to global air-sea CO2 flux variability: A novel atmospheric inversion agrees with ocean models. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L22308, doi:10.1029/2004GL021069.

McLinden, C., et al., 2000: Stratospheric ozone in 3-D models: a simple chemistry and the cross-tropopause flux. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 14653–14665.

McNeil, B.I., et al., 2003: Anthropogenic CO2 uptake by the ocean based on the global chlorofluorocarbon data set. Science, 299(5604), 235–239.

Melillo, J.M., et al., 1995: Vegetation/ecosystem modeling and analysis project: Comparing biogeography and biogeochemistry models in a continental-scale study of terrestrial ecosystem responses to climate change and CO2 doubling. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 9, 407–437.

Melillo, J.M., et al., 2002: Soil warming and carbon-cycle feedbacks to the climate system. Science, 298, 2173–2176.

Menon, S., and A. Del Genio, 2007: Evaluating the impacts of carbonaceous aerosols on clouds and climate. In: An Interdisciplinary Assessment: Human-Induced Climate Change [Schlesinger, M., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, in press.

Menon, S., and L. Rotstayn, 2006: The radiative influence of aerosol effects on liquid-phase cumulus and stratiform clouds based on sensitivity studies with two climate models. Clim. Dyn., 27, 345–356.

Menon, S., A.D. Del Genio, D. Koch, and G. Tselioudis, 2002a: GCM Simulations of the aerosol indirect effect: sensitivity to cloud parameterization and aerosol burden. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 692–713.

Menon, S., J. Hansen, L. Nazarenko, and Y. Luo, 2002b: Climate effects of black carbon aerosols in China and India. Science, 297, 2250–2252.

Menon, S., et al., 2003: Evaluating aerosol/cloud/radiation process parameterizations with single-column models and Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) cloudy column observations. J. Geophys. Res., 108, doi:10.1029/2003JD003902.

Mickley, L.J., D.J. Jacob, and D. Rind, 2001: Uncertainty in preindustrial abundance of tropospheric ozone: implications for radiative forcing calculations. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 3389–3399.

Mickley, L.J., D.J. Jacob, B.D. Field, and D. Rind, 2004: Effects of future climate change on regional air pollution episodes in the United States. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1862, doi:10.1029/2003GL017933.

Mickley, L.J., et al., 1999: Radiative forcing from tropospheric ozone calculated with a unified chemistryclimate model. J. Geophys. Res., 104(D23), 3015330172.

Mikaloff Fletcher, S.E., et al., 2004a: CH4 sources estimated from atmospheric observations of CH4 and its 13C/12C isotopic ratios: 1. Inverse modeling of source processes. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18, GB4004, doi:10.1029/2004GB002223.

Mikaloff Fletcher, S.E., et al., 2004b: CH4 sources estimated from atmospheric observations of CH4 and its 13C/12C isotopic ratios: 2. Inverse modeling of CH4 fluxes from geographical regions. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18, doi:10.1029/2004GB002224.

Mikaloff Fletcher, S.E., et al., 2006: Inverse estimates of anthropogenic CO2 uptake, transport, and storage by the ocean. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18, doi:10.1029/2005GB002530.

Miller, R.L., J. Perlwitz, and I. Tegen, 2004a: Feedback upon dust emission by dust radiative forcing through the planetary boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D24209, doi:10.1029/2004JD004912.

Miller, R.L., I. Tegen, and J. Perlwitz, 2004b: Surface radiative forcing by soil dust aerosols and the hydrologic cycle. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D04203, doi:10.1029/2003JD004085.

Millero, F.J., et al., 2002: Dissociation constants for carbonic acid determined from field measurements. Deep-Sea Res. I, 49, 1705–1723.

Milly, P.C.D, and A.B. Schmakin, 2002: Global modeling of land water and energy balances, Part I: The Land Dynamics (LaD) model. J. Hydrometeorol., 3, 301–310.

Ming, Y., et al., 2005: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory general circulation model investigation of the indirect radiative effects of anthropogenic sulfate aerosol. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D22206, doi:10.1029/2005JD006161.

Montzka, S.A., et al., 1999: Present and future trends in the atmospheric burden of ozone depleting halogens. Nature, 398, 690–694.

Montzka, S.A., et al., 2003: A decline in tropospheric bromine. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(15), 1826, doi:10.1029/2003GL017745.

Mosier, A., et al., 1998: Closing the global N2O budget: N2O emissions through the agricultural nitrogen cycle-OECD/IPCC.IEA phase II development of IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventory methodology. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 52, 225–248.

Mouillot, F., and C.B. Field, 2005: Fire history and the global carbon budget: a 1° x 1° fire history reconstruction for the 20th century. Global Change Biol., 11, 398–420.

Müller, J., and G. Brasseur, 1999: Sources of upper tropospheric HOx: A three-dimensional study. J. Geophys. Res., 104(D1), 1705–1716.

Myhre, G., M.M. Kvalevag, and C.B. Schaaf, 2005: Radiative forcing due to anthropogenic vegetation change based on MODIS surface albedo data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L21410, doi: 10.1029/2005GLO24004.

Nabuurs, G.J., et al., 2003: Temporal evolution of the European forest sector carbon sink from 1950 to 1999. Global Change Biol., 9, 152–160.

Nadelhoffer, K., et al., 2004: Decadal-scale fates of N-15 tracers added to oak and pine stands under ambient and elevated N inputs at the Harvard Forest (USA). For. Ecol. Manage., 196, 89–107.

Naja, M., H. Akimoto, and J. Staehelin, 2003: Ozone in background and photochemically aged air over central Europe: analysis of long-term ozonesonde data from Hohenpeissenberg and Payerne. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D2), 4063, doi:10.1029/2002JD002477.

Naqvi, S.W.A., et al., 2000: Increased marine production of N2O due to intensifying anoxia on the Indian continental shelf. Nature, 408(6810), 346–349.

Negri, A.J., R.F. Adler, L.M. Xu, and J. Surratt, 2004: The impact of Amazonian deforestation on dry season rainfall. J. Clim., 17(6), 1306–1319.

Neill, C., et al., 2005: Rates and controls of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emissions following conversion of forest to pasture in Rondônia. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 71, 1–15.

Nemani, R., et al., 2002: Recent trends in hydrologic balance have enhanced the terrestrial carbon sink in the United States. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(10), 1468, doi:10.1029/2002GL014867.

Nemani, R.R., et al., 2003: Climate-driven increases in global terrestrial net primary production from 1982 to 1999. Science, 300, 1560–1563.

Nepstad, D., et al., 2004: Amazon drought and its implications for forest flammability and tree growth: a basin-wide analysis. Global Change Biol., 10(5), 704–717.

Nesbitt, S.W., R.Y. Zhang, and R.E. Orville, 2000: Seasonal and global NOx production by lightning estimated from the Optical Transient Detector (OTD). Tellus, 52B, 1206–1215.

Nevison, C.D., J.H. Butler, and J.W. Elkins, 2003: Global distribution of N2O and the N2O/AOU yield in the subsurface ocean. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 17(4), 1119, doi:10.1029/2003GB002068.

Nevison, C.D., T. Lueker, and R.F. Weiss, 2004: Quantifying the nitrous oxide source from coastal upwelling. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18, GB1018, doi:10.1029/2003GB002110.

Newchurch, M.J., et al., 2003: Evidence for slowdown in stratospheric ozone loss: first stage of ozone recovery. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D16), 4507, doi:10.1029/2003jd003471.

Newman, P.A., S.R. Kawa, and E.R. Nash, 2004: On the size of the Antarctic ozone hole. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L21104, doi:10.1029/2004GL020596.

Newman, P.A., et al., 2006: When will the Antarctic ozone hole recover? Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L12814, doi:10.1029/2005GL025232.

Nightingale, P.D., et al., 2000: In situ evaluation of air-sea gas exchange parameterisations using novel conservative and volatile tracers. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 14(1), 373–387.

Nilsson, S., et al., 2003: The missing “missing sink”. Forestry Chronicle, 79(6), 1071–1074.

Niu, G.-Y., and Z.-L. Yang, 2004: Effects of vegetation canopy processes on snow surface energy and mass balances. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D23111, doi:10.1029/2004JD004884.

Niyogi, D., et al., 2004: Direct observations of the effects of aerosol loading on net ecosystem CO2 exchanges over different landscapes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L20506, doi:10.1029/2004GL020915.

Nober, F.J., H.-F. Graf, and D. Rosenfeld, 2003: Sensitivity of the global circulation to the suppression of precipitation by anthropogenic aerosols. Global Planet. Change, 37, 57–80.

Norby, R.J., and C.M. Iversen, 2006: Nitrogen uptake, distribution, turnover, and efficiency of use in a CO2-enriched sweetgum forest. Ecology, 87, 5–14.

Norton, W.A., 2003: Sensitivity of northern hemisphere surface climate to simulation of the stratospheric polar vortex. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(12), doi:10.1029/2003GL016958.

Novelli, P.C., et al., 1999: Molecular hydrogen in the troposphere: global distribution and budget. J. Geophys. Res., 104(D23), 30427–30444.

Nowak, R.S., D.S. Ellsworth, and S.D. Smith, 2004: Functional responses of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 – do photosynthetic and productivity data from FACE experiments support early predictions? New Phytol., 162, 253–280.

NRC (National Research Council), 1991: Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 524 pp.

Obata, A., and Y. Kitamura, 2003: Interannual variability of the sea-air exchange of CO2 from 1961 to 1998 simulated with a global ocean circulation-biogeochemistry model. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 3337, doi:10.1029/2001JC001088.

O’Dowd, C.D., 2002: On the spatial extent and evolution of coastal aerosol plumes. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D19), 8105, doi:10.1029/2001JD000422.

O’Dowd, C.D., J.A. Lowe, and M.H. Smith, 1999: Coupling sea-salt and sulphate interactions and its impact on cloud droplet concentration predictions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1311–1314.

O’Dowd, C.D., et al., 2002a: Coastal new particle formation: Environmental conditions and aerosol physicochemical characteristics during nucleation bursts. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D19), 8107, doi:10.1029/2000JD000206.

O’Dowd, C.D., et al., 2002b: A dedicated study of New Particle Formation and Fate in the Coastal Environment (PARFORCE): Overview of objectives and achievements. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D19), 8108, doi:10.1029/2001JD000555.

O’Dowd, C.D., et al., 2004: Biogenically driven organic contribution to marine aerosols. Nature, 431, 676–680.

Oechel, W.C, et al., 2000: Acclimation of ecosystem CO2 exchange in the Alaskan Arctic in response to decadal climate warming. Nature, 406, 978–981.


Ogawa, K., and T. Schmugge, 2004: Mapping surface broadband emissivity of the Sahara desert using ASTER and MODIS data. Earth Interactions, 8(7), 1–14.

Ogle, S.M., M.D. Eve, F.J. Breidt, and K. Paustian, 2003: Uncertainty in estimating land use and management impacts on soil organic carbon storage for US agroecosystems between 1982 and 1997. Global Change Biol., 9, 1521–1542.

Oglesby, R.J., et al., 2002: Thresholds in atmosphere-soil moisture interactions: results from climate model studies. J. Geophys. Res., 107(14), doi:10.1029/2001JD001045.

Okin, G.S., N. Mahowald, O.A. Chadwick, and P. Artaxo, 2004: Impact of desert dust on the biogeochemistry of phosphorus in terrestrial ecosystems. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18, GB2005, doi:10.1029/2003GB002145.

Oleson, K.W., G.B. Bonan, S. Levis, and M. Vertenstein, 2004: Effects of land use change on North American climate: impact of surface datasets and model biogeophysics. Clim. Dyn., 23, 117–132, doi:10.1007/s00382-004-0426-9.

Oleson, K.W., et al., 2003: Assessment of global climate model land surface albedo using MODIS data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(8), 1443, doi:10.1029/2002GL016749.

Olivié, D.J.L., P.F.J. van Velthoven, A.C.M. Beliaars, and H.M. Kelder, 2004: Comparison between archived and off-line diagnosed convective mass fluxes in the chemistry transport model TM3. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D11303, doi:10.1029/2003JD004036.

Olivier, J.G.J., A.F. Bouwman, K.W. Van Der Hoek, and J.J.M. Berdowski, 1998: Global air emission inventories for anthropogenic sources of NOx, NH3 and N2O in 1990. Environ. Pollut., 102(1, S1), 135–148.

Olivier, J.G.J., et al., 2005: Recent trends in global greenhouse emissions: regional trends 1970–2000 and spatial distribution of key sources in 2000. Environ. Sci., 2, 81–99.

Ollinger, S.V., and J.D. Aber, 2002: The interactive effects of land use, carbon dioxide, ozone, and N deposition. Global Change Biol., 8, 545–562

Olsen, S.C., C.A. McLinden, and M.J. Prather, 2001: Stratospheric N2O-NOy system: testing uncertainties in a three-dimensional framework. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 28771–28784.

Ordóñez, C., et al., 2005: Changes of daily surface ozone maxima in Switzerland in all seasons from 1992 to 2002 and discussion of summer 2003. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 1187–1203.

Oren, R., et al., 2001: Soil fertility limits carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems in a CO2-enriched atmosphere. Nature, 411(6836), 469–472.

Orr, J.C., et al., 2001: Estimates of anthropogenic carbon uptake from four three-dimensional global ocean models. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15(1), 43–60, doi:10.1029/1999GB001256.

Orr, J.C., et al., 2005: Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms. Nature, 437(7059), 681–686.

Osborne, T.M., et al., 2004: Influence of vegetation on the local climate and hydrology in the tropics: sensitivity to soil parameters. Clim. Dyn., 23, 45–61.

Oyama, M.D., and C.A. Nobre, 2004: Climatic consequences of a large-scale desertification in northeast Brazil: a GCM simulation study. J. Clim., 17(16), 3203–3213.

Pacala, S.W., et al., 2001: Consistent land- and atmosphere-based US carbon sink estimates. Science, 292, 2316–2320.

Paeth, H., and J. Feichter, 2006: Greenhouse-gas versus aerosol forcing and African climate response. Clim Dyn., 26(1), 35–54.

Page, S., et al., 2002: The amount of carbon released from peat and forest fires in Indonesia during 1997. Nature, 320, 61–65.

Pahlow, M., and U. Riebesell, 2000, Temporal trends in deep ocean Redfield ratios. Science, 287, 831–833.

Palmer, P.I., et al., 2003a: Inverting for emissions of carbon monoxide from Asia using aircraft observations over the western Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D21), 8828, doi:10.1029/2003JD003397.

Palmer, P.I., et al., 2003b: Mapping isoprene emissions over North America using formaldehyde column observations from space. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4180, doi:10.1029/2002JD002153.

Park, R.J., et al., 2004: Global simulation of tropospheric ozone using the University of Maryland Chemical Transport Model (UMD-CTM): 1. Model description and evaluation. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D09301, doi:10.1029/2003JD004266.

Patra, P.K., et al., 2005: Role of biomass burning and climate anomalies for land-atmosphere carbon fluxes based on inverse modeling of atmospheric CO2. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19, GB3005, doi:10.1029/2004GB002258 .

Paull, C.K., et al., 2003: An experiment demonstrating that marine slumping is a mechanism to transfer methane from seafloor gas-hydrate deposits into the upper ocean and atmosphere. Geo.-Marine Lett., 22, 198–203.

Peng, Y., and U. Lohmann, 2003: Sensitivity study of the spectral dispersion of the cloud droplet size distribution on the indirect aerosol effect. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(10), 1507, doi:10.1029/2003GL017192.

Peng, Y., et al., 2002: The cloud albedo-cloud droplet effective radius relationship for clean and polluted clouds from ACE and FIRE. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D11), doi:10.1029/2002JD000281.

Penner, J., et al., 2001: Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects. In: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Houghton, J.T., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 289–348.

Penner, J.E., S.Y. Zhang, and C.C. Chuang, 2003: Soot and smoke aerosol may not warm climate. J. Geophys. Res., 108(21), 4657, doi:10.1029/2003JD003409.

Penner., J.E., et al., 2006: Model intercomparison of indirect aerosol effects. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 6, 1579–1617.

Perlwitz, J., I. Tegen, and R.L. Miller, 2001: Interactive soil dust aerosol model in the GISS GCM 1. Sensitivity of the soil dust cycle to radiative properties of soil dust aerosols. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D16), doi:10.1029/2000JD900668.

Perry, K.D., S.S. Cliff, and M.P. Jimenez-Cruz, 2004: Evidence for hygroscopic mineral dust particles from the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation Experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D23S28, doi:10.1029/2004JD004979.

Petit, J., et al., 1999: Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica. Nature, 399, 429–436.

Pétron, G., et al., 2004: Monthly CO surface sources inventory based on the 2000-2001 MOPITT data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L21107, doi:10.1029/2004GL020560.

Peylin, P., et al., 2005: Multiple constraints on regional CO2 flux variations over land and oceans. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19, GB1011, doi:10.1029/2003GB002214.

Phillips, O.L., et al., 1998: Changes in the carbon balance of tropical forests: evidence from long-term plots. Science, 282(5388), 439–442.

Phillips, V.T.J., T.W. Choularton, A.M. Blyth, and J. Latham, 2002: The influence of aerosol concentrations on the glaciation and precipitation of a cumulus cloud. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 128(581), 951–971.

Pickering, K.E., et al., 2001: Trace gas transport and scavenging in PEM-Tropics B South Pacific convergence zone convection. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D23), doi:10.1029/2001JD000328.

Pielke, R.A. Sr., 2001: Influence of the spatial distribution of vegetation and soils on the prediction of cumulus convective rainfall. Rev. Geophys., 39(2), 151–177.

Pielke, R.A. Sr., and T. Matsui, 2005: Should light wind and windy nights have the same temperature trends at individual levels even if the boundary layer averaged heat content change is the same? Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L21813, doi:10.1029/2005GL024407.

Pinto, J.P., and M.A.K. Khalil, 1991: The stability of tropospheric OH during ice ages, inter-glacial epochs and modern times. Tellus, 43B, 347–352.

Pinty, B., et al., 2006: Simplifying the interaction of land surfaces with radiation for relating remote sensing products to climate models. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D02116, doi:10.1029/2005JD005952.

Pitman, A.J., B.J. McAvaney, N. Bagnound, and B. Chemint, 2004: Are inter-model differences in AMIP-II near surface air temperature means and extremes explained by land surface energy balance complexity. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L05205, doi:10.1029/2003GL019233.

Platnick, S., et al., 2000: The role of background cloud microphysics in the radiative formation of ship tracks. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 2607–2624.

Platt, U., W. Allan, and D. Lowe. 2004: Hemispheric average Cl atom concentration from 12C/13C ratios in atmospheric methane. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 2393–2399.

Plattner, G.-K., F. Joos, T.F. Stocker, and O. Marchal, 2001: Feedback mechanisms and sensitivities of ocean carbon uptake under global warming. Tellus, 53B, 564–592.

Polvani, L.M. and P.J. Kushner, 2002: Tropospheric response to stratospheric perturbations in a relatively simple general circulation model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, doi:10.1029/2001GL014284.

Prather, M.J., 2002: Lifetimes of atmospheric species: integrating environmental impacts. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(22), 2063, doi:10.1029/2002GL016299

Prather, M.J., et al., 2001: Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases. In: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Houghton, J.T., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 239287.

Prentice, I.C., et al., 2001: The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. In: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Houghton, J.T., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 99–181.

Price, C., and D. Rind, 1994a: Possible implications of global climate change on global lightning distributions and frequencies. J. Geophys. Res., 99(D5), doi:10.1029/94JD00019.

Price, C., and D. Rind, 1994b: The impact of a 2xCO2 climate on lightning-caused fires. J. Clim., 7, 1484–1494.

Price, C., J. Penner, and M. Prather, 1997: NOx from lightning 1. Global distribution based on lightning physics. J. Geophys. Res., 102(D5), doi:10.1029/96JD03504.

Prinn, R.G., et al., 1990: Atmospheric emissions and trends of nitrous-oxide deduced from 10 years of ALE-gauge data. J. Geophys. Res., 95(D11), 18369–18385.

Prinn, R.G., et al., 2001: Evidence for substantial variations of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals in the past two decades. Science, 292(5523), 18821888.

Prinn, R.G., et al., 2005: Evidence for variability of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals over the past quarter century. Geophys.Res.Lett., 32, L07809, doi:10.1029/2004GL022228.

Prospero, J.M., and P.J. Lamb, 2003: African droughts and dust transport to the Caribbean: Climate change implications. Science, 302, 1024–1027.

Prospero, J.M., et al., 2002: Environmental characterization of global sources of atmospheric soil dust identified with the NIMBUS 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) absorbing aerosol product. Rev. Geophys., 40, doi:10.1029/2000RG000095.

Qian, Y., and F. Giorgi, 2000: Regional climatic effects of anthropogenic aerosols? The case of Southwestern China. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27(21), doi:10.1029/2000GL011942.

Quaas, J., O. Boucher, and F.-M. Bréon, 2004: Aerosol indirect effects in POLDER satellite data and the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique-Zoom (LMDZ) general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 109, doi:10.1029/2003JD004317.

Quaas, J., O. Boucher, and U. Lohmann, 2006: Constraining the total aerosol indirect effect in the LMDZ and ECHAM4 GCMs using MODIS satellite data. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 947-955.

Quay, P., et al., 2003: Changes in the 13C/12C of dissolved inorganic carbon in the ocean as a tracer of anthropogenic CO2 uptake. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 17(1), 1004, doi:10.1029/2001GB001817.

Quesada, C.A., et al., 2004: Seasonal and depth variation of soil moisture in a burned open savanna (campo sujo) in central Brazil. Ecol. Appl., 14, S33–41.

Raich, J., and W. Schlesinger, 1992: The global carbon dioxide flux in soil respiration and its relationship to vegetation and climate. Tellus, 44B, 81–99.

Ramanathan, V., P.J. Crutzen, J.T. Kiehl, and D. Rosenfeld, 2001: Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle. Science, 294, 2119–2123.

Ramanathan, V., et al., 2005: Atmospheric brown clouds: impacts on South Asian climate and hydrological cycle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 102, 5326–5333.

Ramankutty, N., and J.A. Foley, 1999: Estimating historical changes in global land cover: Croplands from 1700 to 1992. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 13, 997–1028.

Randel, W.J., et al., 2004: Interannual changes of stratospheric water vapor and correlations with tropical tropopause temperatures. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 2133–2148.

Randel, W.J., et al., 2006: Decreases in stratospheric water vapor after 2001: Links to changes in the tropical tropopause and the Brewer-Dobson circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D12312, doi:10.1029/2005JD006744.

Randerson, J.T., et al., 2002a: Net ecosystem production: A comprehensive measure of net carbon accumulation by ecosystems. Ecol. Appl., 12(4), 937–947.

Randerson, J.T., et al., 2002b: Seasonal and latitudinal variability of troposphere Δ14CO2: Post bomb contributions from fossil fuels, oceans, the stratosphere, and the terrestrial biosphere. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16(4), 1112, doi:10.1029/2002GB001876.

Randerson, J.T., et al., 2002c: A possible global covariance between terrestrial gross primary production and 13C discrimination: Consequences for the atmospheric 13C budget and its response to ENSO. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16(4), 1136, doi:10.1029/2001GB001845.

Randerson, J.T., et al., 2002d: Carbon isotope discrimination of arctic and boreal biomes inferred from remote atmospheric measurements and a biosphere-atmosphere model. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16(3), doi:10.1029/2001GB001435.

Randerson, J.T., et al., 2005: Fire emissions from C-3 and C-4 vegetation and their influence on interannual variability of atmospheric CO2 and Δ13CO2. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19(2), GB2019, doi:10.1029/2004GB002366.

Raymond, P.A., and J.J. Cole, 2003: Increase in the export of alkalinity from North America’s largest river. Science, 301, 88–91.

Rayner, P.J., I.G. Enting, R.J. Francey, and R. Langenfelds, 1999: Reconstructing the recent carbon cycle from atmospheric CO2, δ13C and O2/N2 observations. Tellus, 51B(2), 213–232.

Rayner, P.J., et al., 2005: Two decades of terrestrial carbon fluxes from a Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System (CCDAS). Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19, doi:10.1029/2004GB002254.

Reale, O., and P. Dirmeyer, 2002: Modeling the effect of land surface evaporation variability on precipitation variability. I: General response. J. Hydrometeorol., 3(4), 433–450.

Reale, O., P. Dirmeyer, and A. Schlosser, 2002: Modeling the effect of land surface evaporation variability on precipitation variability. II: Time- and space-scale structure. J. Hydrometeorol., 3(4), 451–466.

Reich, P.B., et al., 2006: Nitrogen limitation constrains sustainability of ecosystem response to CO2. Nature, 440, 922–925, doi:10.1038/nature04486.

Reinsel, G.C., et al., 2005: Trend analysis of total ozone data for turnaround and dynamical contributions. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D16306, doi:10.1029/2004JD004662.

Ren, X., et al., 2003: OH and HO2 chemistry in the urban atmosphere of New York City. Atmos. Environ., 37, 3639–3651.

Revelle, R., and H.E. Suess, 1957: Carbon dioxide exchange between atmosphere and ocean and the question of an increase of atmospheric CO2 during past decades. Tellus, 9, 18–27.

Rice, A.H., et al., 2004: Carbon balance and vegetation dynamics in an old-growth Amazonian Forest. Ecol. Appl., 14(4), S55–S71.

Richey, J.E., 2004: Pathways of atmospheric CO2 through fluvial systems. In: The Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Humans, Climate, and the Natural World [Field, C., and M. Raupach (eds)]. SCOPE 62, Island Press, Washington, DC, pp. 329–340.

Richter, A., and J.P. Burrows, 2002: Tropospheric NO2 from GOME measurements. Adv. Space Res., 29, 1673–1683.

Richter, A., et al., 2004: Satellite measurements of NO2 from international shipping emissions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, doi:10.1029/2004GL020822.

Richter, A., et al., 2005: Increase in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide over China observed from space. Nature, 437, 129–132.

Ridgwell, A.J., S.J. Marshall, and K. Gregson, 1999: Consumption of atmospheric methane by soils: A process-based model. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 13, 59–70.

Riebesell, U., D.A. Wolf-Gladrow, and V. Smetacek, 1993: Carbon dioxide limitation of marine phytoplankton growth rates. Nature, 361, 249–251.

Riebesell, U., et al., 2000: Reduced calcification of marine plankton in response to increased atmospheric CO2. Nature, 407, 364–367.

Rind, D., J. Lerner, and C. McLinden, 2001: Changes of tracer distribution in the doubled CO2 climate. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D22), doi:10.1029/2001JD000439.

Roberts, J.M., A.J. Wheeler, and A. Freiwald, 2006: Reefs of the deep: The biology and geology of cold-water coral ecosystems. Science, 312, 543–547.

Robock, A., 2005: Cooling following large volcanic eruptions corrected for the effect of diffuse radiation on tree rings. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L06702, doi:10.1029/2004GL022116.

Rödenbeck, C., S. Houweling, M. Gloor, and M. Heimann, 2003a: Time-dependent atmospheric CO2 inversions based on interannually varying tracer transport. Tellus, 55B, 488–497.

Rödenbeck, C., S. Houweling, M. Gloor, and M. Heimann, 2003b: CO2 flux history 1982–2001 inferred from atmospheric data using a global inversion of atmospheric transport. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 2575–2659.

Roderick, M.L., G.D. Farquhar, S.L. Berry, and I.R. Noble, 2001: On the direct effect of clouds and atmospheric particles on the productivity and structure of vegetation. Oecologia, 129, 21–30.

Roeckner, E., et al., 1999: Transient climate change simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean GCM including the tropospheric sulphur cycle. J. Clim., 12, 3004–3032.

Roeckner, E., et al., 2006: Impact of carbonaceous aerosol emissions on regional climate change. Clim. Dyn., 27, 553–571.

Rosenfeld, D., 1999: TRMM observed first direct evidence of smoke from forest fires inhibiting rainfall. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(20), doi:10.1029/1999GL006066.

Rosenfeld, D., 2000: Suppression of rain and snow by urban and industrial air pollution. Science, 287, 1793–1796.

Rosenfeld, D., and W.L. Woodley, 2000: Deep convective clouds with sustained supercooled liquid water down to –37.5 °C. Nature, 405, 440–442.

Rosenfeld, D., Y. Rudich, and R. Lahav, 2001: Desert dust suppressing precipitation: a possible desertification feedback loop. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 98, 5975–5980.

Rosenfeld, D., R. Lahav, A. Khain, and M. Pinsky, 2002: The role of sea spray in cleansing air pollution over ocean via cloud processes. Science, 297, 1667–1670.

Rosenfield, J.E., A.R. Douglass, and D.B. Considine, 2002: The impact of increasing carbon dioxide on ozone recovery. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D6), 4049, doi:10.1029/2001JD000824.

Rosenlof, K.H., et al., 2001. Stratospheric water vapor increase over the past half-century. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1195–1198.

Rotman, D.A., et al., 2004: IMPACT, the LLNL 3-D global atmospheric chemical transport model for the combined troposphere and stratosphere: Model description and analysis of ozone and other trace gases. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D04303, doi:10.1029/2002JD003155.

Rotstayn, L.D., and U. Lohmann, 2002: Tropical rainfall trends and the indirect aerosol effect. J. Clim., 15, 2103–2116.

Rotstayn, L.D., and Y. Liu, 2003: Sensitivity of the first indirect aerosol effect to an increase of cloud droplet spectral dispersion with droplet number concentration. J. Clim., 16, 3476–3481.

Rotstayn, L.D., and Y. Liu, 2005: A smaller global estimate of the second indirect aerosol effect. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L05708, doi:10.1029/2004GL021922.

Rotstayn, L.D., B.F. Ryan, and J.E. Penner, 2000: Precipitation changes in a GCM resulting from the indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosols. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 3045–3048.

Roy, S.B., G.C. Hurtt, C.P. Weaver, and S.W. Pacala, 2003: Impact of historical land cover change on the July climate of the United States. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D24), 4793, doi:10.1029/2003JD003565.

Roy, T., P. Rayner, R. Matear, and R. Francey, 2003: Southern hemisphere ocean CO2 uptake: reconciling atmospheric and oceanic estimates. Tellus, 55B(2), 701–710.

Royal Society, 2005: Ocean Acidification Due to Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. Policy document 12/05, June 2005, The Royal Society, London, 60 pp., http://www.royalsoc.ac.uk/document.asp?tip=0&id=3249.

Ruddiman, W.F., and J.S. Thomson, 2001: The case for human causes of increased atmospheric CH4 over the last 5000 years. Quat. Sci. Rev., 20, 1769–1777.

Russell, J.L., and J.M. Wallace, 2004: Annual carbon dioxide drawdown and the Northern Annular Mode. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18(1), GB1012, doi:10.1029/2003GB002044.

Rustad, L.E., et al., 2001: A meta-analysis of the response of soil respiration, net nitrogen mineralization, and above ground plant growth to experimental ecosystem warming. Oecologia, 126, 543–562.

Ryskin, G., 2003: Methane-driven oceanic eruptions and mass extinctions. Geology, 31(9), 741–744.

Sabine, C.L., et al., 2004a: The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2. Science, 305(5682), 367–371.

Sabine, C.L., et al., 2004b: Current status and past trends of the global carbon cycle. In: The Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Humans, Climate and the Natural World [Field, C., and M. Raupach (eds.)]. SCOPE 62, Island Press, Washington, DC, pp. 17–44.

Saiz-Lopez, A., and J.M.C. Plane, 2004: Novel iodine chemistry in the marine boundary layer. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L04112, doi:10.1029/2003GL019215.

Saiz-Lopez, A., et al., 2005: Modelling molecular iodine emissions in a coastal marine environment: the link to new particle formation. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 5, 5405–5439.

Saleska, S.R., et al., 2003: Carbon in Amazon forests: Unexpected seasonal fluxes and disturbance–induced losses. Science, 302(5650), 1554–1557.

Salvucci, G.D., J.A. Saleem, and R. Kaufmann, 2002: Investigating soil moisture feedbacks on precipitation with tests of Granger causality. Adv. Water Resour., 25, 1305–1312.

Sanderson, M.G., W.J. Collins, R.G. Derwent, and C.E. Johnson, 2003a: Simulation of global hydrogen levels using a Lagrangian three-dimensional model. J. Atmos. Chem., 46(1), 15–28.

Sanderson, M.G., et al., 2003b: Effect of climate change on isoprene emissions and surface ozone levels. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(18), 1936, doi:10.1029/2003GL017642.

Sarmiento, J.L., and E.T. Sundquist, 1992: Revised budget for the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Nature, 356, 589–593.

Sarmiento, J.L., and N. Gruber, 2006: Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 503 pp.

Sarmiento, J.L., et al., 2004: Response of ocean ecosystems to climate warming. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18(3), GB3003, doi:10.1029/2003GB002134.

Sass, R.L., J.A. Andrews, A.J. Ding, and F.M. Fisher, 2002: Spatial and temporal variability in methane emissions from rice paddies: implications for assessing regional methane budgets. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 64(1–2), 3–7.

Sathyendranath, S., et al., 1991: Biological control of surface temperature in the Arabian Sea. Nature, 349, 54–56.

Saueressig, G., et al., 2001: Carbon 13 and D kinetic isotope effects in the reaction of CH4 with O(1D) and OH: New laboratory measurements and their implications for the isotopic composition of stratospheric methane. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 23127–23138.

Scanlon, B.R., et al., 2005: Ecological controls on water-cycle response to climate variability in deserts. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 102, 6033–6038.

Scheehle, E.A., W.N. Irving, and D. Kruger, 2002: Global anthropogenic methane emission. In: Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases [Van Ham, J., A.P. Baede, R. Guicherit, and J.Williams-Jacobse (eds)]. Millpress, Rotterdam, pp. 257–262.

Schimel, D.S., et al., 2001: Recent patterns and mechanisms of carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems. Nature, 414, 169–172.

Schoeberl, M.R., A.R. Douglass, Z. Zhu, and S. Pawson, 2003: A comparison of the lower stratospheric age-spectra derived from a general circulation model and two data assimilation systems. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D3), doi:10.1029/2002JD002652.

Schultz, M.G., T. Diehl, G.P. Brasseur, and W. Zittel, 2003: Air pollution and climate-forcing impacts of a global hydrogen economy. Science, 302, 624–627.

Schulz, M., Y. Balkanski, F. Dulac, and W. Guelle, 1998: Role of aerosol size distribution and source location in a three-dimensional simulation of a Saharan dust episode tested against satellite-derived optical thickness. J. Geophys Res, 103, 10579–10592.

Sciandra, A., et al., 2003: Response of the coccolithophorid Emiliana huxleyi to elevated partial pressure of CO2 under nitrogen limitation. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 261, 111–122.

Seifert, A., and K.D. Beheng, 2006: A two-moment cloud microphysics parameterization for mixed-phase clouds. Part II: Deep convective storms. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 92, doi:10.1007/s00703-005-0113-3.

Seiler, W., and R. Conrad, 1987: Contribution of tropical ecosystems to the global budget of trace gases, especially CH4, H2, CO, and N2O. In: The Geophysiology of Amazonia: Vegetation and Climate Interactions [Dickinson, R.E. (ed.)]. John Wiley, New York, pp. 33–62.

Sekiguchi, M., et al., 2003: A study of the direct and indirect effects of aerosols using global satellite data sets of aerosol and cloud parameters. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4699, doi:10.1029/2002JD003359.

Sharon, T.M., et al., 2006: Aerosol and cloud microphysical characteristics of rifts and gradients in maritime stratocumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 63(3), 983–997.

Shim, C., et al., 2005: Constraining global isoprene emissions with Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) formaldehyde column measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D24301, doi:10.1029/2004JD005629.

Shindell, D.T., and G. Faluvegi, 2002: An exploration of ozone changes and their radiative forcing prior to the chlorofluorocarbon era. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2, 363–374.

Shindell, D.T., G. Faluvegi, and N. Bell, 2003: Preindustrial-to-present-day radiative forcing by tropospheric ozone from improved simulations with the GISS chemistry-climate GCM. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 1675–1702.

Shindell, D.T., B.P. Walter, and G. Faluvegi, 2004: Impacts of climate change on methane emissions from wetlands. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L21202, doi:10.1029/2004GL021009.

Shindell, D.T., et al., 2001: Chemistry-climate interactions in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model 1. Tropospheric chemistry model description and evaluation. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D8), doi:10.1029/2000JD900704.

Shvidenko, A.Z., and S. Nilsson, 2003: A synthesis of the impact of Russian forests on the global carbon budget for 1961-1998. Tellus, 55B, 391–415.

Siegenthaler, U., et al., 2005: Stable carbon cycle-climate relationship during the late Pleistocene. Science, 310(5752), 1313–1317.

Sievering, H., et al., 1992: Removal of sulphur from the marine boundary layer by ozone oxidation in sea-salt aerosols. Nature, 360, 571–573.

Sievering, H., et al., 2000: Forest canopy uptake of atmospheric nitrogen deposition at eastern U.S. conifer sites: Carbon storage implications. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 14(4), doi:10.1029/1999GB001250.

Sillman, S., and P.J. Samson, 1995: Impact of temperature on oxidant photochemistry in urban, polluted rural, and remote environments. J. Geophys. Res., 100(D6), 11497–11508, doi:10.1029/94JD02146.

Silva Dias, M.A.F., et al., 2002: Clouds and rain processes in a biosphere atmosphere interaction context. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D20), 8072, doi:10.1029/2001JD000335.

Simmonds, P.G., et al., 2000: Continuous high-frequency observations of hydrogen at the Mace Head baseline atmospheric monitoring station over the 1994-1998 period. J. Geophys. Res., 105(D10), 12105–12121, doi:10.1029/2000JD900007.

Simmons, A.J., et al., 2005: ECMWF analyses and forecasts of stratospheric winter polar vortex breakup: September 2002 in the southern hemisphere and related events. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 668–689.

Singh, H.B., et al., 2004: Analysis of the atmospheric distribution, sources, and sinks of oxygenated volatile organic chemicals based on measurements over the Pacific during TRACE-P. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D15S07, doi:10.1029/2003JD003883.

Sinha, A., 1995: Relative influence of lapse rate and water vapour on the greenhouse effect. J. Geophys. Res., 100(D3), 5095–5103, doi:10.1029/94JD03248.

Sitch, S., et al., 2003: Evaluation of ecosystem dynamics, plant geography and terrestrial carbon cycling in the LPJ dynamic global vegetation model. Global Change Biol., 9, 161–185.

Sitch, S., et al., 2005: Impacts of future land cover changes on atmospheric CO2 and climate. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19, doi:10.1029/2004GB002311.

Smith, K.A., and F. Conen, 2004: Impacts of land management on fluxes of trace greenhouse gases. Soil Use Management, 20, 255–263.

Smith, P., D.S. Powlson, M.J. Glendining, and J.U. Smith, 1997: Potential for carbon sequestration in European soils: preliminary estimates for five scenarios using results from long-term experiments. Global Change Biol., 3, 67–79.

Smith, S.V., and J.T. Hollibaugh, 1993: Coastal metabolism and the oceanic organic carbon balance. Rev. Geophys., 31(1), 75–89.

Smyth, T.J., T. Tyrrell, and B. Tarrant, 2004: Time series coccolithophore activity in the Barents Sea, from twenty years of satellite imagery. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L11302, doi:10.1029/2004GL019735.

Snover, A.K., and P.D. Quay, 2000: Hydrogen and carbon kinetic effects during soil uptake of atmospheric methane. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 14, 25–39.

Snyder, P.K., C. Delire, and J.A. Foley, 2004: Evaluating the influence of different vegetation biomes on the global climate. Clim. Dyn., 23, 279–302, doi:10.1007/s00382-004-0430-0.

Song, Y., and W.A. Robinson, 2004: Dynamical mechanisms for stratospheric influences on the troposphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 1711–1725.

Spahni, R., et al., 2005: Atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide of the Late Pleistocene from Antarctic ice cores. Science, 310(5752), 1317–1321.

Steinbrecht, W., H. Claude, and P. Winkler, 2004: Enhanced upper stratospheric ozone: Sign of recovery or solar cycle effect? J. Geophys. Res., 109, D02308, doi:10.1029/2003JD004284.

Stephens, G.L., N.B. Wood, and L.A. Pakula, 2004: On the radiative effects of dust on tropical convection. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L23112, doi:10.1029/2004GL021342.

Stevens, B., et al., 2005: Pockets of open cells and drizzle in marine stratocumulus. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 86, 51–57.

Stevenson, D.S., et al., 2000: Future estimates of tropospheric ozone radiative forcing and methane turnover - the impact of climate change. Geophys. Res. Lett., 105(14), doi:10.1029/1999GL010887.

Stevenson, D.S., et al., 2004: Radiative forcing from aircraft NOx emissions: mechanisms and seasonal dependence. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D17307, doi:10.1029/2004JD004759.

Stevenson, D.S., et al., 2005: Impacts of climate change and variability on tropospheric ozone and its precursors. Faraday Discuss., 130, doi:10.1039/b417412g.

Stevenson, D.S., et al., 2006: Multi-model ensemble of present-day and near-future tropospheric ozone. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D8301, doi:10.1029/2005JD006338.

Stier, P., et al., 2006a: The evolution of the global aerosol system in a transient climate simulation from 1860 to 2100. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 3059–3076.

Stier, P., et al., 2006b: Emission-induced nonlinearities in the global aerosol system - results from the ECHAM5-HAM aerosol-climate model. J. Clim., 19, 3845–3862.

Stocks, B.J., et al., 1998: Climate change and forest fire potential in Russian and Canadian boreal forests. Clim. Change, 38, 1–13.

Storelvmo T., et al., 2006: Predicting cloud droplet number concentration in Community Atmosphere Model (CAM)-Oslo, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D24208, doi:10.1029/2005JD006300.

Sturm, M., T. Douglas, C. Racine, and G. Liston, 2005: Changing snow and shrub conditions affect albedo with global implications. J. Geophys. Res., 110, G01004, doi:10.1029/2005JG000013.

Sudo, K., M. Takahashi, and H. Akimoto, 2002a: CHASER: A global chemical model of the troposphere 2. Model results and evaluation. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4586, doi:10.1029/2001JD001114.

Sudo, K., M. Takahashi, J. Kurokawa, and H. Akimoto, 2002b: CHASER: A global chemical model of the troposphere 1. Model description. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4339, doi:10.1029/2001JD001113.

Suntharalingam, P., et al., 2005: Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO2: Implications for inversion analyses. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19, GB4003, doi:10.1029/2005GB002466.

Takahashi, T., et al., 2002: Global sea-air CO2 flux based on climatological surface ocean pCO2, and seasonal biological and temperature effects. Deep-Sea Res. II, 49(9–10), 1601–1622.

Takemura, T., et al., 2005: Simulation of climate response to aerosol direct and indirect effects with aerosol transport-radiation model. J. Geophys. Res, 110, doi:10.1029/2004JD00502.

Tan, W.W., M.A. Geller, S. Pawson, and A. da Silva, 2004: A case study of excessive subtropical transport in the stratosphere of a data assimilation system. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D11102, doi:10.1029/2003JD004057.

Tans, P. P., and T.J. Conway, 2005: Monthly atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios from the NOAA CMDL Carbon Cycle Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network, 1968-2002. In: Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN, http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/co2/cmdl-flask/cmdl-flask.html.

Tegen, I., A.A. Lacis, and I. Fung, 1996: The influence of mineral aerosols from disturbed soils on the global radiation budget. Nature, 380, 419–422.

Tegen, I., M. Werner, S.P. Harrison, and K.E. Kohfeld, 2004: Relative importance of climate and land use in determining present and future global soil dust emission. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L05105, doi:10.1029/2003GL019216.

Tegen, I., et al., 2002. Impact of vegetation and preferential source areas on global dust aerosol: results from a model study. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D21), 4576, doi:10.1029/2001JD000963.

Textor, C., et al., 2005: Analysis and quantification of the diversities of aerosol life cycles within AEROCOM. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 5, 8331–8420.

Thompson, A.M., et al., 1996: Where did tropospheric ozone over southern Africa and the tropical Atlantic come from in October 1992? Insights from TOMS, GTE TRACE A, and SAFARI 1992. J. Geophys. Res., 101(D19), doi:10.1029/96JD01463.

Thompson, A.M., et al., 2000: A tropical Atlantic paradox: shipboard and satellite views of a tropospheric ozone maximum and wave-one in January–February 1999. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27(20), doi:10.1029/1999GL011273.

Thompson, D.W.J., M.P. Baldwin, and S. Solomon, 2005: Stratosphere/troposphere coupling in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 708–715.

Thompson, S.L., et al., 2004: Quantifying the effects of CO2-fertilized vegetation on future global climate and carbon dynamics. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L23211, doi:10.1029/2004GL021239.

Thornton, P.E., et al., 2002: Modeling and measuring the effects of disturbance history and climate on carbon and water budgets in evergreen needleleaf forests. Agric. For. Meteorol., 113, 185–222.

Tian, H., et al., 1998: Effect of interannual climate variability on carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems. Nature, 396, 664–667.

Tian, Y., et al., 2004: Comparison of seasonal and spatial variations of leaf area index and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and common land model. J. Geophys. Res., 109, doi:10.1029/2003JD003777.

Tie, X.X., A. Guenther, and E. Holland, 2003: Biogenic methanol and its impact on tropospheric oxidants. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(17), 1881, doi:10.1029/2003GL017167.

Tie, X.X., R.Y. Zhang, G. Brasseur, and W.F. Lei, 2002: Global NOx production by lightning. J. Atmos. Chem., 43(1), 61–74.

Tilmes, S., R. Müller, J.-U. Grooß, and J.M. Russell III, 2004: Ozone loss and chlorine activation in the Arctic winters 1991–2003 derived with the TRAC method. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 2181–2213.

Timmreck, C., and M. Schulz, 2004: Significant dust simulation differences in nudged and climatological operation mode of the AGCM ECHAM. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D13202, doi:10.1029/2003JD004381.

Tortell, P.D., G.R. DiTullio, D.M. Sigman, and F.M.M. Morel, 2002: CO2 effects on taxonomic composition and nutrient utilization in an Equatorial Pacific phytoplankton assemblage. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 236, 37–43.

Toumi, R., J.D. Haigh, and K.S. Law, 1996: A tropospheric ozone-lightning climate feedback. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23(9), doi:10.1029/96GL00944.

Trenberth, K.E., and D.J. Shea, 2005: Relationships between precipitation and surface temperature. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L14703, doi:10.1029/2005GL022760.

Tromp, T.K., et al., 2003: Potential environmental impact of a hydrogen economy on the stratosphere. Science, 300, 1740–1742.

Tsigaridis, K., and M. Kanakidou, 2003: Global modelling of secondary organic aerosol in the troposphere: a sensitivity analysis. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 1849–1869.

Tsvetsinskaya, E.A., et al., 2002: Relating MODIS-derived surface albedo to soils and rock types over Northern Africa and the Arabia Peninsula. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(9), doi:10.1029/2001GLO14096.

Turner, D.P., et al., 1991: Climate change and isoprene emissions from vegetation. Chemosphere, 23, 37–56.

Tyler, S.C., et al., 2000: Experimentally determined kinetic isotope effects in the reaction of CH4 with Cl: Implications for atmospheric CH4. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 1715–1718.

Tyrrell, T., P.M. Holligan, and C.D. Mobley, 1999: Optical impacts of oceanic coccolithophore blooms. J. Geophys. Res., 104(C2), 3223–3241.

Umann, B., et al., 2005: Interaction of mineral dust with gas phase nitric acid and sulfur dioxide during the MINATROC II field campaign: First estimate of the uptake coefficient gamma(HNO3) from atmospheric data. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D22306, doi:10.1029/2005JD005906.

UN-ECE/FAO (ed.), 2000: Forest Resources of Europe, CIS, North America, Australia, Japan and New Zealand. UN-ECE/FAO Contribution to the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000, United Nations, New York and Geneva, 445 pp.

Valdes, P.J., D.J. Beeling, and C.E. Johnson, 2005: The ice age methane budget. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, doi:10.1029/2004GL021004.

Valentini, R., et al., 2000: Respiration as the main determinant of carbon balance in European forests. Nature, 404(6780), 861–865.

Van Aardenne, J.A., et al., 2001: A 1°×1° resolution data set of historical anthropogenic trace gas emissions for the period 1890–1990. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15, 909– 928.

Van den Heever, S.C., et al., 2006: Impacts of nucleating aerosol on Florida storms, Part I: Mesoscale simulations. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 1752–1775.

van der Werf, G.R., J.T. Randerson, G.J. Collatz, and L. Giglio, 2003: Carbon emissions from fires in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. Global Change Biol., 9, 547–562.

van der Werf, G.R., et al., 2004: Continental-scale partitioning of fire emissions during the 1997 to 2001 El Niño/La Niña period. Science, 303(5654), 73–76.

van Groenigen, K.J., et al., 2006: Element interactions limit soil carbon storage. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 103, 6571–6574.

van Noije, T.P.C., H.J. Eskes, M. Van Weele, and P.F.J. van Velthoven, 2004: Implications of enhanced Brewer-Dobson circulation in European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalysis for the stratosphere-troposphere exchange of ozone in global chemistry transport models. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D19308, doi:10.1029/2004JD004586.

van Noije, T.P.C., et al., 2006: Multi-model ensemble simulations of tropospheric NO2 compared with GOME retrievals for the year 2000. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 2943–2979.

van Wesemael, B., S. Lettens, C. Roelandt, and J. Van Orshoven, 2005: Modelling the evolution of regional carbon stocks in Belgian 19 cropland soils. Can. J. Soil Sci., 85(4), 511–521.

Velders, G.J.M., et al., 2005: Chemical and radiative effects of halocarbons and their replacement compounds. In: IPCC/TEAP Special Report on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System: Issues related to Hydrofluorocarbons and Perfluorocarbons. Prepared by Working Group I and III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel [Metz, B., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 133–180.

Verdugo, P., et al., 2004: The oceanic gel phase: a bridge in the DOM-POM continuum. Mar. Chem., 92, 67–85.

Vitousek, P.M., 2004: Nutrient Cycling and Limitations: Hawai’i as a Model Ecosystem. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 232 pp.

Vitousek, P.M., et al., 1997: Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences. Ecol. Appl., 7, 737–750.

Vitousek, P.M., et al., 1998: Within-system element cycles, input-output budgets, and nutrient limitations. In: Successes, Limitations, and Frontiers in Ecosystem Science [Pace, M., and P. Groffman (eds.)]. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 432–451.

Voldoire, A., and J.-F. Royer, 2004: Tropical deforestation and climate variability. Clim. Dyn., 22, 857–874, doi:10.1007/s00382-004-0423-z.

Volk, T., and M.I. Hoffert, 1985: Ocean carbon pumps: Analysis of relative strengths and efficiencies in ocean-driven atmospheric CO2 changes. In: The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO2: Natural Variations Archean to Present [Sundquist, E.T., and W.S. Broecker (eds.)]. Geophysical Monograph Vol. 32, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 99–110.

Von Kuhlmann, R., M.G. Lawrence, P.J. Crutzen, and P.J. Rasch, 2003: A model for studies of tropospheric ozone and nonmethane hydrocarbons: model description and ozone results. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4294, doi:10.1029/2002JD002893.

Walsh, J.J., 1991: Importance of continental margins in the marine biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen. Nature, 350, 53–55.

Walter, B.P., and M. Heimann, 2001a: Modeling modern methane emission from natural wetlands, 1. Model description and results. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 34189–34206.

Walter, B.P., and M. Heimann, 2001b: Modeling modern methane emission from natural wetlands, 2. Interannual variations 1982-1993. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 34207–37219.

Wang, C., 2004: A modeling study on the climate impacts of black carbon aerosols. J. Geophys. Res., 109, doi:10.1029/2003JD004084.

Wang, C., and R. Prinn, 1999: Impact of emissions, chemistry and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide: 100 year predictions from a global chemistry model. Chemosphere, 1, 73–81.

Wang, G., and E. Eltahir, 2000: Modeling the biosphere-atmosphere system: the impact of the subgrid variability in rainfall interception. J. Clim., 13, 2887–3078.

Wang, G., et al., 2004: Decadal variability of rainfall in the Sahel: results from the coupled GENESIS-IBIS atmosphere-biosphere model. Clim. Dyn., 22, doi:10.1007/s00382-004-0411-3.

Wang, J.S., M.B. McElroy, C.M. Spivakovsky, and D.B.A. Jones, 2002: On the contribution of anthropogenic Cl to the increase in δ13C of atmospheric methane. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16, doi:10.1029/2001GB001572.

Wang, J.S., et al., 2004: A 3-D model analysis of the slowdown and interannual variability in the methane growth rate from 1988 to 1997. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18, GB3011, doi:10.1029/3003GB002180.

Wang, S.S., 2005: Dynamics of surface albedo of a boreal forest and its simulation. Ecol. Model., 183, 477–494.

Wang, S.S., et al., 2002: Modelling carbon dynamics of boreal forest ecosystems using the Canadian Land Surface Scheme. Clim. Change, 55(4), 451–477.

Wang, Y., D.J. Jacob, and J.A. Logan, 1998: Global simulation of tropospheric O3-NOx-hydrocarbon chemistry, 3. Origin of tropospheric ozone and effects of non-methane hydrocarbons. J. Geophys. Res., 103(D9), 10757–10768.

Wang, Z., et al., 2004: Using MODIS BRDF and albedo data to evaluate global model land surface albedo. J. Hydrometeorol., 5, 3–14.

Wanninkhof, R., and W.R. McGillis, 1999: A cubic relationship between air-sea CO2 exchange and wind speed. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(13), 1889–1892.

Warneck, P., 1988: Chemistry of the Natural Atmosphere. Academic Press, London, 757 pp.

Warner, C.D., and M.E. McIntyre, 2001: An ultrasimple spectral parameterization for nonorographic gravity waves. J. Atmos Sci., 58, 1837–1857.

Warner, J., and S. Twomey, 1967: The production of cloud nuclei by cane fires and the effect on cloud droplet concentration. J. Atmos Sci., 24, 704–706.

Warwick, N.J., S. Bekki, E.G. Nisbet, and J.A. Pyle, 2004: Impact of a hydrogen economy on the stratosphere and troposphere studied in a 2-D model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L05107, doi:10.1029/2003GL019224.

Warwick, N.J., et al., 2002: The impact of meteorology on the interannual growth rate of atmospheric methane. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(20), 1947, doi:10.1029/2002GL015282.

Weaver, C.P., S.B. Roy, and R. Avissar, 2002: Sensitivity of simulated mesoscale atmospheric circulations resulting from landscape heterogeneity to aspects of model configuration. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D20), 8041, doi:10.1029/2001JD000376.

Weiss, R.F., 1974: Carbon dioxide in water and seawater: the solubility of a non-ideal gas. Mar. Chem., 2, 203–215.

Wells, M.L., and E.D. Goldberg, 1994: The distribution of colloids in the North Atlantic and Southern Oceans. Limnol. Oceanogr., 39, 286–302.

Werner, M., et al., 2002: Seasonal and interannual variability of the mineral dust cycle under present and glacial climate conditions. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D24), 4744, doi:10.1029/2002JD002365.

Wetzel, P., et al., 2006. Effects of ocean biology on the penetrative radiation in a coupled climate model. J. Clim., 19, 3973–3987.

Wickland, K., R. Striegl, J. Neff, and T. Sachs, 2006: Effects of permafrost melting on CO2 and CH4 exchange of a poorly drained black spruce lowland. J. Geophys. Res., 111, G02011, doi:10.1029/2005JG000099.

Wild, O., M.J. Prather, and H. Akimoto, 2001: Indirect long-term global radiative cooling from NOx emissions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(9), 17191722.

Wild, O., P. Pochanart, and H. Akimoto, 2004: Trans-Eurasian transport of ozone and its precursors. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D11302, doi:10.1029/2003JD004501.

Williams, A.A.J., D.J. Karoly, and N. Tapper, 2001: The sensitivity of Australian fire danger to climate change. Clim. Change, 49, 171–191.

Williams, K.D., et al., 2001: The response of the climate system to the indirect effects of anthropogenic sulphate aerosols. Clim. Dyn., 17, 845–856.

Williamson, D., et al., 2005: Moisture and temperature at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site in forecasts with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM2). J. Geophys. Res., 110, doi:10.1029/2004JD005109.

WMO, 2003: Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002. Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project Report No. 47, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 498 pp.

Wong, S., et al., 2004: A global climate-chemistry model study of present-day tropospheric chemistry and radiative forcing from changes in tropospheric O3 since the preindustrial period. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D11309, doi:10.1029/2003JD003998.

Woodward, S., D.L. Roberts, and R.A. Betts, 2005: A simulation of the effect of climate change-induced desertification on mineral dust aerosol. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L18810, doi:10.1029/2005GL023482.

Wuebbles, D.J., and K. Hayhoe, 2002: Atmospheric methane and global change. Earth Sci. Rev., 57, 177–210.

Wurzler, S., T.G. Reisin, and Z. Levin, 2000: Modification of mineral dust particles by cloud processing and subsequent effects on drop size distributions. J. Geophys. Res., 105(D4), 4501–4512.

Xiao, Y., et al., 2004: Constraints on Asian and European sources of methane from CH4-C2H6-Co correlation in Asian outflow. J. Geophys. Res., 109, doi:10.1029/2003JD004475.

Xu, Z., et al., 2004: Effects of elevated CO2 and N fertilization of CH4 emissions from paddy rice fields. Global Biogechem. Cycles, 18, GB3009, doi:10.1029/2004GB002233.

Yamasoe, M.A., et al., 2006: Effect of smoke and clouds on the transmissivity of photosynthetically active radiation inside the canopy. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1645–1656.

Yan, X., T. Ohara, and H. Akimoto, 2003: Development of region-specific emission factors and estimation of methane emission from rice fields in the East, Southeast, and South Asian countries. Global Change Biol., 9, 237–254.

Yang, E.-S., D.M. Cunnold, M.J. Newchurch, and R.J. Salawitch, 2005: Change in ozone trends at southern high latitudes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L12812, doi:10.1029/2004GL022296.

Yang, K., et al., 2004: The daytime evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer and convection over the Tibetan Plateau: observations and simulations. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 82(6), 1777–1792.

Yang, R., and M.A. Friedl, 2003: Modeling the effects of 3-D vegetation structure on surface radiation and energy balance in boreal forests. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D16), 8615, doi:10.1029/2002JD003109.

Yin, Y., K.S. Carslaw, and G. Feingold, 2005: Vertical transport and processing of aerosols in a mixed-phase convective cloud and the feedback on cloud development. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 131, 221–246.

Yin, Y., A. Levin, T.G. Reisin, and S. Tzivion, 2000: The effect of giant cloud condensation nuclei on the development of precipitation in convective clouds - a numerical study. Atmos. Res., 53, 91–116.

Yin, Y., S. Wurzler, A. Levin, and T.G. Reisin, 2002: Interactions of mineral dust particles and clouds: Effects on precipitation and cloud optical properties. J. Geophys. Res., 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD001544.

Yurganov, L.N., et al., 2005: Increased Northern Hemispheric carbon monoxide burden in the troposphere in 2002 and 2003 detected from the ground and from space. Atm. Chem. Phys., 5, 563–573.

Zeebe, R.E., and D. Wolf-Gladrow, 2001: CO2 in Seawater: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Isotopes. Elsevier Oceanography Series 65, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 346 pp.

Zender, C., R.L. Miller, and I. Tegen, 2004: Quantifying mineral dust mass budgets: systematic terminology, constraints, and current estimates. Eos, 85(48), 509, 512.

Zeng, G., and J.A. Pyle, 2003: Changes in tropospheric ozone between 2000 and 2100 modeled in a chemistry-climate model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1392, doi:10.1029/2002GL016708.

Zeng, N., K. Hales, and J.D. Neelin, 2002: Nonlinear dynamics in a coupled vegetation-atmosphere system and implications for desert-forest gradient. J. Clim., 15, 3474–3485.

Zeng, N., A. Mariotti, and P. Wetzel, 2005: Terrestrial mechanisms of interannual CO2 variability, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19, GB1016, doi:10.1029/2004GB002273.

Zeng, N., H. Qian, E. Munoz, and R. Iacono, 2004: How strong is carbon cycle-climate feedback under global warming? Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L20203, doi:10.1029/2004GL020904.

Zeng, X.-D., S.S.P. Shen, X. Zeng, and R.E. Dickinson, 2004: Multiple equilibrium states and the abrupt transitions in a dynamical system of soil water interacting with vegetation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L05501, doi:10.1029/2003GL018910.

Zerefos, C., et al., 1998: Quasi-biennial and longer-term changes in clear sky UV-B solar irradiance. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 4345–4348.

Zhang, J., U. Lohmann, and P. Stier, 2005: A microphysical parameterization for convective clouds in the ECHAM5 climate model, 1. Single column results evaluated at the Oklahoma ARM site. J. Geophys. Res., 110, doi:10.1029/2004JD005128.

Zhang, X.Y., R. Arimoto, and Z.S. An, 1997: Dust emission from Chinese desert sources linked to variations in atmospheric circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 28041–28047.

Zhang, X.Y., H.Y. Lu, R. Arimoto, and S.L. Gong, 2002: Atmospheric dust loadings and their relationship to rapid oscillations of the Asian winter monsoon climate: two 250-kyr loess records. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 202, 637–643.

Zhang, X.Y., et al., 2003: Sources of Asian dust and role of climate change versus desertification in Asian dust emission. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 2272, doi:10.1029/2003GL018206.

Zhou, L., R.E. Dickinson, and Y. Tian, 2005: Derivation of a soil albedo dataset from MODIS using principal component analysis: Northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L21407, doi:10.1029/205GL024448.

Zhou, L., et al., 2001: Variations in northern vegetation activity inferred from satellite data of vegetation index during 1981 to 1999. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 20069–20083.

Zhou, L., et al., 2003a: A sensitivity study of climate and energy balance simulations with use of satellite-derived emissivity data over Northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D24), 4795, doi:10.1029/2003JD004083.

Zhou, L., et al., 2003b: Relations between albedos and emissivities from MODIS and ASTER data over North African desert. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(20), 2026, doi:10/1029/2003GL018069.

Zhou, L., et al., 2003c: Relation between interannual variations in satellite measures of northern forest greenness and climate between 1982 and 1999. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D1), 4004, doi:10.1029/2002JD002510.

Zhou, L., et al., 2004: Evidence for a significant urbanization effect on climate in China. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 101(26), 9540–9544.

Zhuang, Q., et al., 2004: Methane fluxes between terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere at northern high latitudes during the past century: A retrospective analysis with a process-based biogeochemistry model. Global Biogeochem.Cycles, 18, doi:10.1029/2008GB002239.

Zittel, W., and M. Altmann, 1996: Molecular hydrogen and water vapour emissions in a global hydrogen energy economy. In: Proceedings of the 11th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, Stuttgart, Germany, June 1996. Schön & Wetzel, Frankfurt, Germany, pp. 71–82.

Zondervan, I., R.E. Zeebe, B. Rost, and U. Riebesell, 2001: Decreasing marine biogenic calcification: a negative feedback on rising pCO2. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15, 507–516.