Figure 1.3. Published records of surface temperature change over large regions. Köppen (1881) tropics and temperate latitudes using land air temperature. Callendar (1938) global using land stations. Willett (1950) global using land stations. Callendar (1961) 60°N to 60°S using land stations. Mitchell (1963) global using land stations. Budyko (1969) Northern Hemisphere using land stations and ship reports. Jones et al. (1986a,b) global using land stations. Hansen and Lebedeff (1987) global using land stations. Brohan et al. (2006) global using land air temperature and sea surface temperature data is the longest of the currently updated global temperature time series (Section 3.2). All time series were smoothed using a 13-point filter. The Brohan et al. (2006) time series are anomalies from the 1961 to 1990 mean (°C). Each of the other time series was originally presented as anomalies from the mean temperature of a specific and differing base period. To make them comparable, the other time series have been adjusted to have the mean of their last 30 years identical to that same period in the Brohan et al. (2006) anomaly time series.