Figure 10.3. Comparison of shortwave and longwave instantaneous radiative forcings and flux changes computed from AOGCMs and line-by-line (LBL) radiative transfer codes (W.D. Collins et al., 2006). (a) Instantaneous forcing from doubling atmospheric CO2 from its concentration in 1860; b) changes in radiative fluxes caused by the 20% increase in water vapour expected in the climate produced from doubling atmospheric CO2. The forcings and flux changes are computed for clear-sky conditions in mid-latitude summer and do not include effects of stratospheric adjustment. No other well-mixed greenhouse gases are included. The minimum-to-maximum range and median are plotted for five representative LBL codes. The AOGCM results are plotted with box-and-whisker diagrams (see caption for Figure 10.2) representing percentiles of forcings from 20 models in the AR4 multi-model ensemble. The AOGCMs included are BCCRBCM2.0, CCSM3, CGCM3.1(T47 and T63), CNRMCM3, ECHAM5/MPIOM, ECHOG, FGOALSg1.0, GFDLCM2.0, GFDLCM2.1, GISSEH, GISSER, INMCM3.0, IPSLCM4, MIROC3.2 (medium and high resolution), MRICGCM2.3.2, PCM, UKMOHadCM3, and UKMOHadGEM1 (see Table 8.1 for model details). The LBL codes are the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) LBL, the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) LBL3, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)/Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine (ICSTM) general LBL GENLN2, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center MRTA and the University of Reading Reference Forward Model (RFM).