Figure 2.12. Characteristic aerosol properties related to their radiative effects, derived as the mean of the results from the nine AeroCom models listed in Table 2.5. All panels except (b) relate to the combined anthropogenic aerosol effect. Panel (b) considers the total (natural plus anthropogenic) aerosol optical depth from the models. (a) Aerosol optical depth. (b) Difference in total aerosol optical depth between model and MODIS data. (c) Shortwave RF. (d) Standard deviation of RF from the model results. (e) Shortwave forcing of the atmosphere. (f) Shortwave surface forcing.