IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
Climate Change 2007: Working Group I: The Physical Science Basis

Figure 2.2. Schematic comparing RF calculation methodologies. Radiative forcing, defined as the net flux imbalance at the tropopause, is shown by an arrow. The horizontal lines represent the surface (lower line) and tropopause (upper line). The unperturbed temperature profile is shown as the blue line and the perturbed temperature profile as the red line. From left to right: Instantaneous RF: atmospheric temperatures are fixed everywhere; stratospheric-adjusted RF: allows stratospheric temperatures to adjust; zero-surface-temperature-change RF: allows atmospheric temperatures to adjust everywhere with surface temperatures fixed; and equilibrium climate response: allows the atmospheric and surface temperatures to adjust to reach equilibrium (no tropopause flux imbalance), giving a surface temperature change (ΔTs).