IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
Climate Change 2007: Working Group I: The Physical Science Basis


Figure 2.23. Globally and annually averaged temporal evolution of the instantaneous all-sky RF (bottom panel) and surface forcing (top panel) due to various agents, as simulated in the MIROC+SPRINTARS model (Nozawa et al., 2005; Takemura et al., 2005). This is an illustrative example of the forcings as implemented and computed in one of the climate models participating in the AR4. Note that there could be differences in the RFs among models. Most models simulate roughly similar evolution of the LLGHGs’ RF.