Figure 2.9. Calculated RF due to tropospheric ozone change since pre-industrial time based on CTM and GCM model simulations published since the TAR. Estimates with GCMs including the effect of climate change since 1750 are given by orange bars (Adjusted RF, CC). Studies denoted with an (*) give only the instantaneous RF in the original publications. Stratospheric-adjusted RFs for these are estimated by reducing the instantaneous RF (indicated by the dashed bars) by 20%. The instantaneous RF from Mickley et al. (2001) is reported as an adjusted RF in Gauss et al. (2006). ACCENT models include ULAQ: University of L’Aquila; DLR_E39C: Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt European Centre Hamburg Model; NCAR_MACCM: National Center for Atmospheric Research Middle Atmosphere Community Climate Model; CHASER: Chemical Atmospheric GCM for Study of Atmospheric Environment and Radiative Forcing; STOCHEM_HadGEM1: United Kingdom Meteorological Office global atmospheric chemistry model /Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model 1; UM_CAM: United Kingdom Meteorological Office Unified Model GCM with Cambridge University chemistry; STOCHEM_HadAM3: United Kingdom Meteorological Office global atmospheric chemistry model/Hadley Centre Atmospheric Model; LMDzT-INCA: Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique GCM-INteraction with Chemistry and Aerosols; UIO_CTM2: University of Oslo CTM; FRSGC_UCI: Frontier Research System for Global Change/University of California at Irvine CTM.