Figure 3.17. Observed surface and upper-air temperature anomalies (°C). (A) Lower stratospheric T4, (B) Tropospheric T2, (C) Lower tropospheric T2LT, from UAH, RSS and VG2 MSU satellite analyses and UKMO HadAT2 and NOAA RATPAC radiosonde observations; and (D) Surface records from NOAA, NASA/GISS and UKMO/CRU (HadCRUT2v). All time series are monthly mean anomalies relative to the period 1979 to 1997 smoothed with a seven-month running mean filter. Major volcanic eruptions are indicated by vertical blue dashed lines. Adapted from Karl et al. (2006).