11.8.2 Fostering the process of adaptation to climate change
Australia and New Zealand have few integrated regional and sectoral assessments of impacts, adaptation and socio-economic risk. More are desirable, especially when set within the wider context of other multiple stresses. Methods to incorporate adaptation into environmental impact assessments and other regional planning and development schemes need to be developed. More research is required as to how local communities can shape adaptation (Kenny, 2005) and of adaptation options for M?ori and Indigenous Australian communities, especially for those on traditional lands. Priority should be given to reducing the vulnerability of ‘hotspot’ areas through:
- identification of mechanisms that governments might use to reduce vulnerability,
- better understanding of societal preparedness and of the limitations and barriers to adaptation,
- better definition of costs and benefits of adaptation options, including benefits of impacts avoided, co-benefits, side effects, limits and better modelling,
- analyses of various options for social equity and fairness, the impacts of different discount rates, price incentives, delayed effects and inter-generational equity.