15.4.3 Marine ecosystems and their services in the Arctic
220.127.116.11 Historical changes in marine ecosystems
Water temperatures in the North Atlantic have fluctuated over the last 200 years. The effects of these temperature variations have been profound, impacting plankton communities as well as larval drift, distribution and abundance of many fish stocks including southern invaders and, especially, the commercially important cod and herring (Loeng et al., 2005; Vilhjálmsson et al., 2005; see Section 15.6.3). These climatic impacts on fish stocks are superimposed on those arising from exploitation.