220.127.116.11 Summary of disasters and hazards
Global losses reveal rapidly rising costs due to extreme weather-related events since the 1970s. One study has found that while the dominant signal remains that of the significant increases in the values of exposure at risk, once losses are normalised for exposure, there still remains an underlying rising trend. For specific regions and perils, including the most extreme floods on some of the largest rivers, there is evidence for an increase in occurrence.
1.3.9 Socio-economic indicators
The literature on observed changes in socio-economic indicators in response to recent climate change is sparse. Here we summarise some of the few examples related to energy demand and tourism, and some studies on regional adaptations to climate trends. Other relevant indicators include energy supply and markets for natural resources (e.g., timber, fisheries). Indicators of adaptation such as domestic insurance claims, energy demand, and changes in tourism are being defined and tracked for the UK and Europe (Defra, 2003; EEA, 2004).