4.1.2 Key issues
Based on new findings for ecosystems since the TAR, we highlight here five overarching key issues pertinent to assessing the vulnerability of ecosystems to anthropogenic climate change, and related adaptation responses.
Firstly, ecosystems are expected to tolerate some level of future climate change and, in some form or another, will continue to persist (e.g., Kirschbaum and Fischlin, 1996; Gitay et al., 2001), as they have done repeatedly with palaeoclimatic changes (Jansen et al., 2007). A primary key issue, however, is whether ecosystem resilience (understood as the disturbance an ecosystem can tolerate before it shifts into a different state, e.g., Scheffer et al., 2001; Cropp and Gabrica, 2002; Folke et al., 2004) inferred from these responses (e.g., Harrison and Prentice, 2003) will be sufficient to tolerate future anthropogenic climate change (e.g., Chapin et al., 2004; Jump and Peñuelas, 2005). The implications of possibly transient increases in productivity for resilience are also very relevant. These may occur in certain terrestrial ecosystems through likely atmospheric CO2-fertilisation effects and/or modest warming (e.g., Baker et al., 2004; Lewis et al., 2004b; Malhi and Phillips, 2004), and demonstrated consequences of increased radiation due to reduced tropical cloudiness (Nemani et al., 2003). Ecosystem resilience thus seems usefully equivalent to the critical ecosystem property highlighted in Article 2 of the UNFCCC, i.e., an “ability to adapt naturally”.
Secondly, ecosystems are increasingly being subjected to other human-induced pressures, such as extractive use of goods, and increasing fragmentation and degradation of natural habitats (e.g., Bush et al., 2004). In the medium term (i.e., decades) especially, climate change will increasingly exacerbate these human-induced pressures, causing a progressive decline in biodiversity (Lovejoy and Hannah, 2005). However, this is likely to be a complex relationship that may also include some region-specific reductions in land-use pressures on ecosystems (e.g., Goklany, 2005; Rounsevell et al., 2006).
A third key issue involves exceeding critical thresholds and triggering non-linear responses in the biosphere that could lead via positive feedback to novel states that are poorly understood. Projected future climate change and other human-induced pressures are virtually certain to be unprecedented (Forster et al., 2007) compared with the past several hundred millennia (e.g., Petit et al., 1999; Augustin et al., 2004; Siegenthaler et al., 2005).
Fourthly, the understanding of time-lags in ecosystem responses is still developing, including, for example, broad-scale biospheric responses or shifting species geographical ranges. Many ecosystems may take several centuries (vegetation) or even possibly millennia (where soil formation is involved) before responses to a changed climate are played out (e.g., Lischke et al., 2002). A better understanding of transient responses and the functioning of ecosystems under continuously changing conditions is needed to narrow uncertainties about critical effects and to develop effective adaptation responses at the time-scale of interest to human society.
A fifth key issue relates to species extinctions, and especially global extinction as distinct from local extinctions, since the former represents irreversible change. This is crucial, especially because of a very likely link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in the maintenance of ecosystem services (Duraiappah et al., 2005; Hooper et al., 2005; Diaz et al., 2006; Worm et al., 2006), and thus extinctions critical for ecosystem functioning, be they global or local, are virtually certain to reduce societal options for adaptation responses.