IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
Climate Change 2007: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability Tools for assessing adaptation needs and options

Since the TAR, many more tools have become available to support assessments of the need for adaptation and to identify appropriate interventions (Table 6.10).

Table 6.10. Selected tools that support coastal adaptation assessments and interventions.

Description Selected examples 
Indices of vulnerability to sea-level rise Thieler and Hammar-Klose, 2000; Kokot et al., 2004 
Integrated models and frameworks for knowledge management and adaptation assessment Warrick et al., 2005; Dinas-Coast Consortium, 2006; Schmidt-Thomé, 2006 
Geographic information systems for decision support Green and King, 2002; Bartlett and Smith, 2005 
Scenarios – a tool to facilitate thinking and deciding about the future DTI, 2002; Ledoux and Turner, 2002 
Community vulnerability assessment tool NOAA Coastal Services Center, 1999; Flak et al., 2002 
Flood simulator for flood and coastal defences and other responses Discovery Software, 2006; Box 6.2 
Estimating the socio-economic and environmental effects of disasters ECLAC, 2003 
ICZM process sustainability – a score card Milne et al., 2003 
Monetary economic valuation of the environment Ledoux et al., 2001; Ohno, 2001 
Evaluating and mapping return periods of extreme events Bernier et al., 2007 
Methods and tools to evaluate vulnerability and adaptation UNFCCC, 2005