|Country ||Key findings ||Adaptation recommendations |
(McMichael et al., 2003b)
Increase in heatwave-related deaths; drowning from floods; diarrhoeal disease in indigenous communities; potential change in the geographical range of dengue and malaria; likely increase in environmental refugees from Pacific islands.
(Programa Nacional de Cambios Climaticos Componente Salud et al., 2000)
Intensification of malaria and leishmaniasis transmission. Indigenous populations may be most affected by increases in infectious diseases.
(National Environment Commission et al., 2006)
Loss of life from frequent flash floods; glacier lake outburst floods; landslides; hunger and malnutrition; spread of vector-borne diseases into higher elevations; loss of water resources; risk of water-borne diseases.
Ensure safe drinking water; regular vector control and vaccination programmes; monitor air and drinking water quality; establishment of emergency medical services.
Increase in heatwave-related deaths; increase in air pollution-related diseases; spread of vector- and rodent-borne diseases; increased problems with contamination of both domestic and imported shellfish; increase in allergic disorders; impacts on particular populations in northern Canada.
Monitoring for emerging infectious diseases; emergency management plans; early warning systems; land-use regulations; upgrading water and wastewater treatment facilities; measures for reducing the heat-island effect.
(Hassi and Rytkonen, 2005)
Small increase in heat-related mortality; changes in phenological phases and increased risk of allergic disorders; small reduction in winter mortality.
Awareness-building and training of medical doctors.
(Zebisch et al., 2005)
Observed excess deaths from heatwaves; changing ranges in tick-borne encephalitis; impacts on health care.
Increase information to the population; early warning; emergency planning and cooling of buildings; insurance and reserve funds.
(Ministry of Environment and Forest and Government of India, 2004)
Increase in communicable diseases. Malaria projected to move to higher latitudes and altitudes in India.
Surveillance systems; vector control measures; public education.
Increased risk of heat-related emergency visits, Japanese cedar pollen disease patients, food poisoning; and sleep disturbance.
Heat-related emergency visit surveillance.
Increase in heat-related mortality, air pollutants; risk of Lyme disease, food poisoning and allergic disorders.
(Woodward et al., 2001)
Increases in enteric infections (food poisoning); changes in some allergic conditions; injuries from more intense floods and storms; a small increase in heat-related deaths.
Systems to ensure food quality; information to population and health care providers; flood protection; vector control.
(Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente, 2000)
Increase of vector-borne and other infectious diseases; health problems due to high ozone levels in urban areas; increase in malnutrition.
(Casimiro and Calheiros, 2002; Calheiros and Casimiro, 2006)
Increase in heat-related deaths and malaria (Tables 8.2, 8.3), food- and water-borne diseases, West Nile fever, Lyme disease and Mediterranean spotted fever; a reduction in leishmaniasis risk in some areas.
Address thermal comfort; education and information as well as early warning for hot periods; and early detection of infectious diseases.
Increase in heat-related mortality and air pollutants; potential change of ranges of vector- and rodent-borne diseases.
Awareness-raising; early warning systems for heatwaves; surveillance and monitoring; review of health policies.
(Kaumov and Muchmadeliev, 2002)
Increase in heat-related deaths.
(Thommen Dombois and Braun-Fahrlaender, 2004)
Increase of heat-related mortality; changes in zoonoses; increase in cases of tick-borne encephalitis.
Heat information, early warning; greenhouse gas emissions reduction strategies to reduce secondary air pollutants; setting up a working group on climate and health.
(Department of Health and Expert Group on Climate Change and Health in the UK, 2001)
Health impacts of increased flood events; increased risk of heatwave-related mortality; and increased ozone-related exposure.