Detailed, regional-scale research on the impact of, and vulnerability to, climate change and variability with reference to water is needed; e.g., for African watersheds and river basins including the complex interactions of water governance in these areas. Water quality and its relation to water-usage patterns are also important issues that need to be incorporated into future projections. Further research on the impacts of climate variability and change on groundwater is also needed.
There is very little detailed information on the impacts and vulnerabilities of the energy sector in Africa specific to climate change and variability, particularly using and applying SRES scenarios and GCMs outputs. There is also a need to identify and assess the barriers (technical, economic and social) to the transfer and adoption of alternative and renewable energy sources, specifically solar energy, as well as the design, implications, impacts and possible benefits of current mitigation options (e.g., Clean Development Mechanisms (CDMs), including carbon sequestration).