There is a need to improve our understanding of the role of complex socio-economic, socio-cultural and biophysical systems, including a re-examination of possible myths of environmental change and of the links between climate change, adaptation, and development in Africa. Such investigations arguably underpin much of the emerging discourse on adaptation. There is also a need to assess current and expected future impacts and vulnerabilities, and the future adaptation options and pathways that may arise from the interaction of multiple stressors on the coping capacities of African communities.
22.214.171.124 Vulnerability and risk reduction
While there are some joint activities that involve those trying to enhance risk-reduction activities, there is still little active engagement between communities that are essentially researching similar themes. The need exists, therefore, to enhance efforts on the coupling and drawing together of disaster risk-reduction activities, vulnerability assessments, and climate change and variability assessments. There is also a need to improve and continue to assess the means (including the institutional design and requirements) by which scientific knowledge and advanced technological products (e.g., early warning systems, seasonal forecasts) could be used to enhance the resilience of vulnerable communities in Africa in order to improve their capacity to cope with current and future climate variability and change.