TS.4.5 Especially affected systems, sectors and regions
Some systems, sectors and regions are likely to be especially affected by climate change.
Regarding systems and sectors, these are as follows.
- Some ecosystems especially
- terrestrial: tundra, boreal forest, mountain, Mediterranean-type ecosystems;
- along coasts: mangroves and salt marshes;
- in oceans: coral reefs and the sea-ice biomes. [4.ES, 4.4, 6.4]
- Low-lying coasts, due to the threat of sea-level rise [6.ES].
- Water resources in mid-latitude and dry low-latitude regions, due to decreases in rainfall and higher rates of evapotranspiration [3.4].
- Agriculture in low-latitude regions, due to reduced water availability [5.4, 5.3].
- Human health, especially in areas with low adaptive capacity [8.3].
Regarding regions, these are as follows.
- The Arctic, because of high rates of projected warming on natural systems [15.3].
- Africa, especially the sub-Saharan region, because of current low adaptive capacity as well as climate change [9.ES, 9.5].
- Small islands, due to high exposure of population and infrastructure to risk of sea-level rise and increased storm surge [16.1, 16.2].
- Asian megadeltas, such as the Ganges-Brahmaputra and the Zhujiang, due to large populations and high exposure to sea-level rise, storm surge and river flooding [T10.9, 10.6].
Within other areas, even those with high incomes, some people can be particularly at risk (such as the poor, young children and the elderly) and also some areas and some activities [7.1, 7.2, 7.4].