10.3 Emission trends
10.3.1 Global overview
Quantifying global trends requires annual national data on waste production and management practices. Estimates for many countries are uncertain because data are lacking, inconsistent or incomplete; therefore, the standardization of terminology for national waste statistics would greatly improve data quality for this sector. Most developing countries use default data on waste generation per capita with inter-annual changes assumed to be proportional to total or urban population. Developed countries use more detailed methodologies, activity data and emission factors, as well as national statistics and surveys, and are sharing their methods through bilateral and multilateral initiatives.
For landfill CH4, the largest GHG emission from the waste sector, emissions continue several decades after waste disposal; thus, the estimation of emission trends requires models that include temporal trends. Methane is also emitted during wastewater transport, sewage treatment processes and leakages from anaerobic digestion of waste or wastewater sludges. The major sources of N2O are human sewage and wastewater treatment. The CO2 from the non-biomass portion of incinerated waste is a small source of GHG emissions. The IPCC 2006 Guidelines also provide methodologies for CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from open burning of waste and for CH4 and N2O emissions from composting and anaerobic digestion of biowaste. Open burning of waste in developing countries is a significant local source of air pollution, constituting a health risk for nearby communities. Composting and other biological treatments emit very small quantities of GHGs but were included in 2006 IPCC Guidelines for completeness.
Overall, the waste sector contributes <5% of global GHG emissions. Table 10.3 compares estimated emissions and trends from two studies: US EPA (2006) and Monni et al. (2006). The US EPA (2006) study collected data from national inventories and projections reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and supplemented data gaps with estimates and extrapolations based on IPCC default data and simple mass balance calculations using the 1996 IPCC Tier 1 methodology for landfill CH4. Monni et al. (2006) calculated a time series for landfill CH4 using the first-order decay (FOD) methodology and default data in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines, taking into account the time lag in landfill emissions compared to year of disposal. The estimates by Monni et al. (2006) are lower than US EPA (2006) for the period 1990–2005 because the former reflect slower growth in emissions relative to the growth in waste. However, the future projected growth in emissions by Monni et al. (2006) is higher, because recent European decreases in landfilling are reflected more slowly in the future projections. For comparison, the reported 1995 CH4 emissions from landfills and wastewater from national inventories were approximately 1000 MtCO2eq (UNFCCC, 2005). In general, data from Non-Annex I countries are limited and usually available only for 1994 (or 1990). In the TAR, annual global CH4 and N2O emissions from all sources were approximately 600 Tg CH4/yr and 17.7 Tg N/yr as N2O (IPCC, 2001b). The direct comparison of reported emissions in Table 10.3 with the SRES A1 and B2 scenarios (Nakicenovic et al., 2000) for GHG emissions from waste is problematical: the SRES do not include landfill-gas recovery (commercial since 1975) and project continuous increases in CH4 emissions based only on population increases to 2030 (AIB-AIM) or 2100 (B2-MESSAGE), resulting in very high emission estimates of >4000 MtCO2-eq/yr for 2050.
Table 10.3: Trends for GHG emissions from waste using (a) 1996 and (b) 2006 IPCC inventory guidelines, extrapolations, and projections (MtCO2-eq, rounded)
|Source ||1990 ||1995 ||2000 ||2005 ||2010 ||2015 ||2020 ||2030 ||2050 |
|Landfill CH4a ||760 ||770 ||730 ||750 ||760 ||790 ||820 || || |
|Landfill CH4b ||340 ||400 ||450 ||520 ||640 ||800 ||1000 ||1500 ||2900 |
|Landfill CH4 (average of a and b) ||550 ||585 ||590 ||635 ||700 ||795 ||910 || || |
|Wastewater CH4a ||450 ||490 ||520 ||590 ||600 ||630 ||670 || || |
|Wastewater N2Oa ||80 ||90 ||90 ||100 ||100 ||100 ||100 || || |
|Incineration CO2b ||40 ||40 ||50 ||50 ||60 ||60 ||60 ||70 ||80 |
|Total GHG emissions ||1120 ||1205 ||1250 ||1345 ||1460 ||1585 ||1740 || || |
Table 10.3 indicates that total emissions have historically increased and will continue to increase (Monni et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006; see also Scheehle and Kruger, 2006). However, between 1990 and 2003, the percentage of total global GHG emissions from the waste sector declined 14–19% for Annex I and EIT countries (UNFCCC, 2005). The waste sector contributed 2–3% of the global GHG total for Annex I and EIT countries for 2003, but a higher percentage (4.3%) for non-Annex I countries (various reporting years from 1990–2000) (UNFCCC, 2005). In developed countries, landfill CH4 emissions are stabilizing due to increased landfill CH4 recovery, decreased landfilling, and decreased waste generation as a result of local waste management decisions including recycling, local economic conditions and policy initiatives. On the other hand, rapid increases in population and urbanization in developing countries are resulting in increases in GHG emissions from waste, especially CH4 from landfills and both CH4 and N2O from wastewater. CH4 emissions from wastewater alone are expected to increase almost 50% between 1990 and 2020, especially in the rapidly developing countries of Eastern and Southern Asia (US EPA, 2006; Table 10.3). Estimates of global N2O emissions from wastewater are incomplete and based only on human sewage treatment, but these indicate an increase of 25% between 1990 and 2020 (Table 10.3). It is important to emphasize, however, that these are business-as-usual (BAU) scenarios, and actual emissions could be much lower if additional measures are in place. Future reductions in emissions from the waste sector will partially depend on the post-2012 availability of Kyoto mechanisms such the CDM and JI.
Uncertainties for the estimates in Table 10.3 are difficult to assess and vary by source. According to 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006), uncertainties can range from 10–30% (for countries with good annual waste data) to more than twofold (for countries without annual data). The use of default data and the Tier 1 mass balance method (from 1996 inventory guidelines) for many developing countries would be the major source of uncertainty in both the US EPA (2006) study and reported GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006). Estimates by Monni et al. (2006) were sensitive to the relationship between waste generation and GDP, with an estimated range of uncertainty for the baseline for 2030 of –48% to +24%. Additional sources of uncertainty include the use of default data for waste generation, plus the suitability of parameters and chosen methods for individual countries. However, although country-specific uncertainties may be large, the uncertainties by region and over time are estimated to be smaller.