IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
Climate Change 2007: Working Group III: Mitigation of Climate Change Co-benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation on air pollution

A variety of analytical methods have been applied to identify co-benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation and air pollution. Some assessments are entirely bottom-up and static, and focus on a single sector or sub-sector. Others include multi-sector or economy-wide general-equilibrium effects, taking a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches. In addition, there are numerous methodological distinctions between studies. There are, for example, different baseline emission projections, air quality modelling techniques, health impact assessments, valuation methods, etc. These methodological differences, together with the scarcity of data, are a major source of uncertainties when estimating co-benefits. While the recent literature provides new insights into individual co-benefits (for example in the areas of health, agriculture, ecosystems, cost savings, etc.), it is still a challenge to derive a complete picture of total co-benefits.