Options for mitigation in transportation are not considered to be vulnerable to climate change. For transport there are no obvious links between mitigation and adaptation. Any adaptation of the system to climate change, e.g. more air conditioning in vehicles, is not expected to have a significant long-term impact on mitigation.
220.127.116.11 Commercial and residential buildings
While it is clear that the impact of climate change on commercial and residential buildings could be massive, particularly as a result of extreme events and sea level rises, there is less appreciation of the major synergies that are possible between adaptation and mitigation. Modern architecture rarely takes the prevailing climate into consideration, even though design options could result in a considerable reduction in the energy load of buildings, and improve their adaptation to a changing climate (Larsson, 2003). Nevertheless, there is a relatively small amount of literature exploring adaptation-mitigation linkages for new and existing buildings. One example is cool-roof technology options for adapting to higher temperatures. These options also provide mitigation advantages by reducing electricity use and CO2 emissions. At the same time, cool roofs contribute to reducing the formation of ground level ozone. An example of a conflict between adaptation and mitigation is the effect of a sizeable increase in heat-waves in urban centres. An increase of this kind could intensify pressure for the penetration of inefficient air conditioners, increasing power demand and CO2 emissions, as was the case during the heat-wave of 1–14 August 2003 in Europe.