220.127.116.11 Operationalization of mainstreaming
Though there is a considerable amount of literature on how development policies are made (see Section12.2.3), there is currently very limited literature on how climate mitigation considerations could be mainstreamed into development policies. Based on a number of Indian case studies on integrating climate change mitigation in local development, Heller and Shukla (2003) note operational guidelines which can integrate development and climate policies into the future development pathways of developing countries. In developing countries, which by and large have not yet enacted domestic GHG legislation, the Clean Development Mechanism can play a role as one component of national GHG reduction strategies and sustainable development.
Based on a United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA, 2006) report on best practices for implementation of clean energy policies and programmes, Sathaye et al. (2006) conclude that following best practices would benefit the operationalization process: (a) commitment of publicly elected and/or regulatory bodies; (b) involvement and support of key stakeholders; (c) sound economic and environmental analyses conducted using simple and transparent tools; (d) longer time frames for programmes so that they can overcome market and funding cycles; (e) setting annual and cumulative targets to gage progress of mainstreaming; (f) ensuring additionality over and above existing and other planned programmes; (g) selection of an effective entity for implementation; (h) education and regular training of key participants; (i) monitoring and evaluation of mainstreaming results; and (j) maintenance of a functional database on a project’s or programme’s sustainable development performance.
A study of the Baltic region explores a sustainable development pathway addressing broad environmental, economic and social development goals, including low GHG emissions. A majority of the population could favour - or at least tolerate - a set of measures that change individual and corporate behaviours to align with local and global sustainability (Raskin et al., 1998). Kaivo-oja (2004) concludes that climate change as such may not be a major direct threat to Finland, but the effects of climate change on the world’s socio-economic system and the related consequences for the Finnish system may be considerable. The Finnish scenario analysis, which is based on intensive expert and stakeholder involvement, suggests that such indirect consequences have to be taken into account in developing strategic views of possible future development paths for administrative and business sectors.